This is an important chapter for everyone, no matter what your strengths and weaknesses are. The exercises in Chapter 5 will help you reinforce the skills you’ve learned to this point and assist you in gaining greater flexibility and variety in your sentence structure.

The chapter contains a series of sentence-combining exercises to do on your own paper. In terms of sentence structure, sentence combining is a great finishing touch. You’ve learned a lot of dos and don’ts, and this is an excellent way of reviewing and exercising them. If you’ve had a hard time with run-ons or comma splices, for example, this chapter will give you another opportunity to work on correcting them. You’ll also get more practice reworking sentences with fragments, dangling modifiers, and faulty parallelism. After all, these errors are nothing more than missteps in the process of sentence combining. And if you’ve had any difficulty making compound, complex, or embedded sentences, or remembering the rules for punctuating them correctly, the exercises in this chapter will help you. If you need more work on semicolons and colons, try to use them whenever you think they’re appropriate.

Now let’s examine how free sentence-combining exercises work. Please read the following series of sentences carefully.

Agatha Christie disappeared in 1924.

She was a famous English mystery writer.

She was missing for 10 days.

Her disappearance made headlines in the British newspapers.

It made the front page.

If these five sentences appeared consecutively in a college student’s paper, they would be judged to have a choppy, overly simple sound. On the other hand, if they appeared in the writing of a 10-year-old, they probably would be regarded quite favorably. Adult writers generally use short, unconnected sentences infrequently, and when they do, it’s for a dramatic effect. Normally, adult writers are interested in showing relationships between facts, and that’s why they automatically combine clauses most of the time. Here are some of the ways that the series of sentences can be combined:

(a) Agatha Christie, a famous English mystery writer, was missing for 10 days in 1924, and her disappearance made front-page headlines in the British newspapers.

(b) The 10-day disappearance of Agatha Christie, a famous English mystery writer, made front-page headlines in the British newspapers in 1924.

(c) When Agatha Christie dropped out of sight for 10 days in 1924, British newspapers featured the disappearance of the great English mystery writer in front-page headlines.

(d) In 1924, banner headlines in British newspapers announced the 10-day disappearance of the famous English mystery writer, Agatha Christie.

(e) Agatha Christie, an Englishwoman who was already famous for her “whodunits,” became front-page news in the British press when she disappeared for 10 days in 1924.

Notice that the meaning of each sentence in the original series is preserved in every variation, (a) through (e). In sentence combining, the wording and the order of information can change, but the meaning stays basically the same.

Notes on the exercises

Some students love sentence combining; others find it monotonous. For most people, the trick is to work on the exercises in chunks of not more than 20 or 30 minutes. If you try to do two or three hours’ worth of sentence combining in one sitting, you’re probably going to get very little out of the experience. If it starts to seem like busywork, take a break and come back fresh.

Once in a great while, you might find a group of sentences for which you can make only one satisfactory combination. However, for most groups, you’ll be able to combine the sentences in a variety of ways. Make at least one combination for each group.

If a numbered “group” actually consists of only one sentence, it’s a transitional sentence or a sentence that is short for some other intended effect. This kind of sentence should not be combined with anything else or rephrased.

Sometimes you’ll see items that should be put into parallel form. The natural parallelism of some listed items has been altered in order to give you a little challenge here and there.

Exercise 5.1 Odd Moments in the World of Sports

This exercise consists of 10 short items (A-J) based on sports oddities described in The Great American Sports Book by George Gipe.

A. 1. Two football teams were practicing before a game. The teams were from King’s Island, Alaska.

They were getting ready for the 1938 New Year’s Day Ice Bowl game.

2. They had been practicing on an ice floe.

The ice floe was huge.

It was flat.

It was near their village.

3. They went out to practice.

The date was December 18, 1937.

They couldn’t find their practice field.

Gale-force winds had blown it away.

B. 1. The French Boxing Federation made a decision.

It made the decision in 1924.

2. The federation issued an official ban.

It was a ban against fighters kissing each other.

Fighters had traditionally kissed each other at the end of each bout.

C. 1. How slow can you go and still win?

2. The slowest time for a winning racehorse was set in 1945.

It was set during a steeplechase.

3. The horse was named Never Mind II.

Never Mind II refused a jump.

His jockey gave up.

He returned the horse to the paddock.

4. When the jockey arrived at the paddock, he learned that all the other horses had met one of two fates.

Some of the horses had fallen.

The rest had been disqualified.

5. So he jumped onto Never Mind II.

He rode him back onto the track.

6. Never Mind II won the race.

The race was two miles.

His winning time was 11 minutes and 28 seconds.

The race is normally finished in four minutes.

D. 1. Here’s another odd bit of trivia.

It is from the world of horseracing.

2. A jockey had just won the first race of his career.

His name was Hayes.

The date was June 4, 1923.

After his victory, he immediately dropped dead.

E. 1. The first official baseball game played in the United States took place on June 19, 1846.

It was between the “New York Nine” and the Knickerbockers.

2. During the game, a New York player swore at the umpire.

He started a baseball tradition by doing so.

The tradition is long.

The tradition is rich.

3. The New York player was named Davis.

He was fined for his outburst.

The fine was six cents.

F. 1. Hockey is known for its violence.

Most of it seems to be intentional.

2. But one hockey game was marked by a very unusual incident.

It was an incident of unintentional violence.

It happened in 1930.

The game was in Quebec.

It was a junior amateur game.

3. A puck was lined at the goalie.

The goalie was Able Goldberry.

The puck struck a pack of matches.

The matches were in Goldberry’s pocket.

His uniform caught on fire.

4. The fire was put out.

It was put out by players and spectators.

Abie Goldberry was badly burned in the bizarre incident.

G. 1. During a basketball game at St. Peter’s High School, all of the players on one team, with one exception, fouled out. The game was between sophomores and seniors. The game was played on March 16, 1937. The high school was in Fairmount, Virginia. The exception was Pat McGee.

2. When all the others fouled out, the game was tied.

The score was 32-32.

There were four minutes left to play.

3. It didn’t look good for McGee’s team.

4. But McGee faced the five players on the opposing team.

He scored a goal.

He made a foul shot.

He defended his team’s basket.

He prevented his opponents from scoring.

5. McGee won the game for his team.

He did it single-handedly.

The final score was 35-32.

H. 1. In 1958, Robert F. Legge swam the Panama Canal.

Legge was a U.S. Navy doctor.

He was 53 years old.

The canal was 28.5 miles long.

His time was 21 hours and 54 minutes.

2. During the swim, he encountered only two living creatures.

One was a boa constrictor.

The other was an iguana.

3. At times, progress was difficult.

He had to contend with occasional swells.

The swells were a result of the heavy traffic of ships.

4. When he arrived at Balboa, he was met by a greeting party.

It consisted of several hundred well-wishers.

It also included a toll collector.

The toll collector charged Legge 72 cents.

That was the minimum fee for a one-ton vessel in ballast.

I. 1. In 1890, a postseason baseball series was played.

It was a best-of-seven series.

It was between New York of the National League and St.

Louis of the American Association.

2. New York had won three games.

St. Louis had won two.

Then the St. Louis Browns won their third game.

The series was all tied up. It was three games apiece.

3. After they evened up the series, the Browns stayed out all night.

They were celebrating.

The next day, they claimed to be “too tuckered out” to take the field.

As a consequence, the final game was canceled.

The best-of-seven series still stands as “tied 3-3” in the record books today.

J. 1. In 1865, Louis Fox was playing John Deery in Rochester, New York.

They were playing pool.

They were playing for a $1,000 purse.

2. Louis Fox was a billiard champion.

He was enjoying a very comfortable lead.

Suddenly, a fly landed on the cue ball.

3. The problem was how to get the fly to move without moving the cue ball.

4. Those who were present tried everything.

The fly would not budge.

It didn’t matter what anyone did.

5. Fox was more than bugged by the presence of the fly.

He became completely rattled.

6. He miscued.

He lost the match with Deery.

He rushed out of the pool hall.

He was angry.

7. Several days later, his body was found.

It was floating in the river.

The river was near the pool hall.

Many people assumed that Fox committed suicide after his strange loss.

Exercise 5.2 Sweet Dreams

A. 1. Several years ago, the editors of Psychology Today asked their readers a question.

They asked readers if they remembered their dreams.

2. More than 1,000 of the magazine’s readers responded.

Approximately 95 percent of the readers reported that they do remember at least some of their dreams.

About 68 percent claimed to have a recurring dream.

3. Two different themes were represented most frequently in the recurring dreams.

One was the experience of being chased.

The other was the sensation of falling.

4. The readers reported other recurring themes.

Those themes included flying.

They included appearing naked or almost naked in a public place.

Another one was being unprepared to take a test.

One was the act of returning to the dreamer’s childhood home.

5. About 45 percent of the readers said that they sometimes dream about celebrities.

The celebrities that were noted most frequently were sex symbols and rock stars.

6. After sex symbols and rock stars, people most often reported dreaming about politicians and historical figures.

One such historical figure was Abraham Lincoln.

7. Lincoln himself put a lot of stock in dreams.

He believed that one dream had forewarned him of his own assassination.

8. Of those who responded to the Psychology Today survey, 28 percent had seen themselves die in a dream.

That sounds very ominous.

Most experts say a dream of one’s own death should not be at all frightening.

B. 1. Ann Faraday is a psychologist.

She is the author of The Dream Game.

She says that a dream about one’s death often indicates something far different from what you might expect.

2. She says it usually symbolizes the death of a self-image.

The self-image is obsolete.

She says it signals an opportunity to move to a higher state of self-definition.

3. The interpretation of dreams in general is a highly controversial area.

4. There are those who follow Sigmund Freud.

They believe that dreams are the key to the unconscious.

5. Then there are those who follow the thinking of Francis Crick. He is a Nobel laureate.

He believes that dreams are a garbage disposal for the mind.

6. Their function is to clear out a certain type of information. That information is useless.

It interferes with rational thought.

It interferes with memory.

This is what Crick believes.

7. Then there is a third school of thought.

It consists of psychologists who believe that dreams are not important in themselves.

They believe that dreams become important because people think they are important.

8. These psychologists believe that people give dreams meaning.

People give them influence.

They give them power.

Exercise 5.3 A Giant of a Man

A. 1. The People’s Almanac #3 includes a cautionary tale.

The almanac is the work of David Wallechinsky and Irving Wallace.

The tale is for anyone who has ever daydreamed about what it would be like to be a giant.

2. It is not a tall tale.

It is a true story.

It is the story of Robert Wadlow.

He was probably the tallest person who has ever lived.

3. Wadlow was born in Alton, Illinois.

He was born on February 22, 1918.

His weight at birth was nothing unusual.

He was eight-and-a-half pounds.

4. His family’s medical history was normal.

There were no unusually tall members in his family.

5. But he grew rapidly.

He grew steadily.

This was true from birth.

It didn’t stop until his death.

6. He was weighed at six months.

He was 30 pounds.

The average six-month-old baby weighs from 15 to 17 pounds.

7. He was weighed again at 18 months. His weight was 62 pounds.

The average toddler at that age weighs 24 or 25 pounds.

8. He underwent his first thorough examination at the age of 5. He was five feet, four inches tall. He weighed 105 pounds.

9. He started school when he was five and a half.

He was wearing clothes made for 17-year-olds.

10. He was measured again at the age of 8. He had reached a height of six feet. His father was Robert Wadlow, Sr. His father started wearing hand-me-downs. The hand-me-downs came from his son.

B. 1. When Robert Wadlow was 12, his rapid growth was finally diagnosed.

The diagnosis was excessive pituitary gland secretion.

After that, careful records of his growth were kept.

They were kept at Washington University.

Washington University is in St. Louis, Missouri.

2. He grew an average of three inches a year.

This rate of growth continued throughout his entire life.

At his death, his height was eight feet, eleven inches.

He died on July 15, 1940.

3. His early death was not surprising.

4. Pituitary giants usually die before middle age.

Their organs outgrow the ability to function correctly.

5. Physical coordination becomes difficult for a giant.

As a result, a giant usually has many more accidents than a normal-sized person has.

6. A giant’s accidents also tend to result in more serious injuries.

This problem is compounded by the fact that a giant’s body heals more slowly.

7. Wadlow in particular had more than his share of physical problems.

They began with an operation for a double hernia.

The operation took place when he was 2 years old.

8. Everything he encountered in this world was on the wrong scale.

School desks were too small.

Doorways were too low.

Beds were too short.

Chairs were too tiny.

9. He had terrible problems with his feet.

10. Doctors advised Wadlow to walk as much as possible. Walking was supposed to build up the strength in his feet.

It did not.

It damaged his arches even more severely.

11. For a while, he attended Shurtleff College.

He wanted to become a lawyer.

He had to drop out.

The reason was that it was too difficult for him to walk from classroom to classroom.

C. 1. Robert Wadlow’s life was marked by tragedy.

His life was not completely tragic.

2. He was intelligent.

He was charming.

He had good parents.

They tried to make his life as normal as possible.

They tried to make it as full as possible.

3. His boyhood days were filled with typical things.

They were filled with hobbies.

They were filled with sports.

He belonged to the Boy Scouts.

He loved to read.

4. But his life was also filled with things that were not so typical.

5. The more unusual aspects of Wadlow’s story started when he was discovered by the media.

That discovery happened when he was 9 years old.

6. It happened when the Associated Press came across a photograph.

The Associated Press circulated it in newspapers all across the nation.

7. That’s when Robert Wadlow became a public person.

8. From that time on, he had to deal with a steady stream of people.

Some were reporters.

Some were medical researchers.

Some were curiosity seekers.

Some were entrepreneurs.

9. Theatrical agents pressured him to perform.

They made very attractive offers.

They wanted his services.

10. His parents rejected all opportunities to make money from his misfortune.

11. He did, however, make appearances for the Peters Shoe Company.

They were paid appearances.

The Peters Shoe Company was in St. Louis.

12. This endorsement arrangement was appropriate.

Wadlow had to have specially made shoes.

He often outgrew new shoes even before they were delivered.

13. Robert Wadlow also worked for the Ringling Brothers Circus.

He worked for Ringling Brothers in New York and Boston.

He did so for a short time.

This was in 1937.

There were strict conditions in his contract with the circus.

14. These were the conditions of the contract.

He would make only three-minute appearances.

He would make them in the center ring.

He would not make them in the sideshow.

He would wear ordinary street clothes for these appearances.

15. Wadlow occasionally made appearances for churches.

He also helped to raise funds for charities.

He accepted no pay for these activities.

D. 1. In 1936, Robert Wadlow had a visit from a doctor.

He was a doctor from a small town in Missouri.

The doctor was interested in studying giantism.

2. He happened to catch Wadlow on a bad day.

Bad days were relatively rare for Wadlow.

3. The doctor later wrote an article about Wadlow.

The article was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

The article described Wadlow as dull.

It described him as surly.

4. According to information cited in The People’s Almanac #3, this characterization is generally true of most pathological giants.

It was not true of Robert Wadlow.

He was truly an exceptional human being.

5. The unflattering description in the medical journal hurt Wadlow deeply.

It disillusioned him.

It did so for two reasons.

6. For one thing, all his life he had put up with medical researchers.

The medical researchers had invaded his privacy.

They had taken up his time.

He always had done so voluntarily.

He usually had done so graciously.

7. For another thing, the article was based on the doctor’s impressions.

Those impressions were made very quickly.

The doctor’s only visit with Wadlow had lasted less than an hour.

8. Wadlow wanted his character vindicated.

His family did, too.

They took legal action against the doctor.

They also took legal action against the American Medical Association (AMA).

9. The AMA strongly defended the doctor.

The litigation dragged on and on.

The matter was not resolved when Wadlow died.

He died at the age of 22.

10. Robert Wadlow stipulated that after his death he wanted his body to be kept out of the hands of medical researchers.

His stipulation was partly the result of this episode.

11. In accordance with his wishes, there was no examination of his body after his death.

12. He was buried in a custom-built casket.

The casket was 10 feet long.

The casket was placed inside a tomb.

The tomb was almost impregnable.

The tomb was in his hometown.

13. More than 46,000 people came to the funeral home in Alton, Illinois.

They paid their last respects to Robert Wadlow.

Exercise 5.4 Control and Well-being

A. 1. Judith Rodin is a psychology professor.

She teaches at Yale University.

She has been involved in important studies on a number of topics.

One topic is bystander intervention.

One is learned helplessness.

One is obesity.

One is aging.

2. She is interested in relationships.

One that especially interests her is the relationship between the mind and the body.

Another one is the relationship between biology and environment.

3. Older people, in particular, have benefitted from Rodin’s research.

4. In fact, it’s been said that it’s not easy for her to find places in Connecticut where she can continue to study the problems of older people in nursing homes.

This is because so many positive changes already have been made in the state’s nursing homes as a result of her work.

5. Rodin conducted a study on perceived choice among residents of nursing homes.

She did this at one point in her career.

She did this with psychologist Ellen Langer. The study was fascinating.

It was described in an issue of Psychology Today.

6. Perceived choice is the amount of control that a person believes he or she has over events.

7. Rodin already knew that the degree to which people feel they can exert control in important areas of their lives influences three things.

It influences their happiness.

It influences their ability to perform.

It influences their sense of well-being.

She knew this on the basis of laboratory studies.

B. 1. Judith Rodin and Ellen Langer wanted to investigate perceived choice or control in a real-life setting.

The real-life setting they chose was a nursing home.

2. They were especially interested in one relationship.

It was the relationship between the degree of control that the nursing home residents thought they had and the residents’ health and happiness.

3. Rodin and Langer believed that a nursing home might be a place where the effects of increased control could show up dramatically.

Improvements in well-being could be quite obvious. They would show up in people who were already sick or frail.

4. It would be more difficult to show the positive benefits of an increased sense of control in people who were younger and healthier.

In those people, any benefits would more likely be in the form of prevention rather than improvement.

5. The results of the study were indeed dramatic.

6. Nursing home residents in the study were given new choices. These were in areas in which they previously had no choice.

Many of the new choices seemed quite trivial.

7. For example, residents were allowed to choose when they could see a movie.

They were allowed to arrange their rooms as they wished.

C. 1. The choices may have been trivial.

The results were not.

2. The researchers used a variety of methods to measure the effects of the residents’ new sense of control.

The researchers discovered that the residents’ new sense of control had a number of effects.

One effect was an improvement in their health.

One effect was an improvement in their overall mental state.

One effect was a drop in the death rate at the nursing home.

3. Why would having new choices in trivial areas of life produce such profound effects?

4. Rodin explains that the choices seem trivial only to people who have a broad range of choices in their lives.

To those who have little or no choice, any choice at all has great impact.

5. A sense of control or perceived choice created a profound psychological state.

It is a state in which the residents felt better about themselves.

6. They felt a sense of power.

That sense of power caused them to respond more positively to family members.

It caused them to respond more positively to other residents.

It caused them to respond more positively to nurses and doctors.

In turn, everyone in their lives responded more positively toward them.

7. Choosing when to see a movie or where to put a picture on a wall might seem trivial.

But Rodin says that small bit of control can have an energizing effect. It can have that effect on every aspect of an older person’s life.

Exercise 5.5 Mabel K. Staupers and Black Nurses in the Military

A. 1. Mabel Keaton Staupers was one of the outstanding women of the twentieth century.

She was a black woman.

She was fast-talking.

She was energetic.

2. She broke a link in a chain.

She did it almost single-handedly.

It was a chain that had kept many black women from using their talents and skills.

It was a chain that had denied them their full rights as American citizens.

3. Her story is fascinating.

It is inspiring.

It is a classic David and Goliath tale.

It is told in Black Leaders of the Twentieth Century.

4. It is the story of a battle between one woman and two branches of the American military.

The woman was the executive secretary of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (NACGN).

The branches of the military were the U.S. Army and the Navy.

5. Mabel K. Staupers’s accomplishment must be viewed within the context of a certain period in American history if it is to be fully appreciated.

6. It was around the time that the United States entered into World War II.

American blacks recently had become much less accepting of the racial status quo.

There were many reasons for this.

One was the anti-Nazi mood of the nation.

7. For many blacks, their unequal treatment in their own country was highlighted in an ironic way by America’s opposition to Nazi Germany.

8. In opposing the philosophy and actions of Germany’s Nazis, the U.S. government did a lot of talking.

So did many members of the press.

So did much of the general public.

They all talked a lot about the ideals upon which America had been founded.

9. They contrasted Germany to an America that was pure in the realization of its democratic ideals.

They spoke of an America that was just in its treatment of people of different backgrounds.

The differences might be in religion, ethnicity, or race.

10. Such statements about this country struck some Americans as hypocritical.

They struck some Americans as ironic.

Some of those Americans were black.

Some were white.

11. One person summed this up the situation well.

He was Walter White.

He wrote, “World War II has immeasurably magnified the Negro’s awareness of the disparity between the American profession and practice of democracy.”

B. 1. It was during this time and in this context that Mabel K.

Staupers began her long fight.

Her fight was for the rights of black nurses.

She used patience.

She used persistence.

She used a great deal of political savvy.

2. Staupers was born in Barbados, West Indies.

She was born in 1890.

She came to New York with her parents.

They came to New York in 1903.

3. She graduated from Freedmen’s Hospital School of Nursing.

It was in Washington, D.C.

She graduated in 1917.

Then she began her career.

Her first position was as a private nurse in New York City.

4. She played an important role in establishing the Booker T. Washington Sanatorium.

The Booker T. Washington Sanatorium was in Harlem. It was the first facility in the area where black doctors could treat patients.

5. Then she worked as the executive secretary for the Harlem Committee of the New York Tuberculosis and Health Association.

She did that for 12 years.

6. Finally, Staupers was appointed executive secretary of the NACGN.

That was in 1934.

In her new position, she focused on one main goal.

That goal was to help black nurses become fully integrated into the mainstream of American health care.

7. Then the United States entered World War II.

It was 1941.

8. Mabel K. Staupers had a perfect opportunity to realize her goal.

The war created a great demand for nurses to care for the wounded.

9. That demand could result in the acceptance of black nurses into the Army and Navy Nurse Corps.

That acceptance could be a vehicle.

It could be a vehicle for the full inclusion of blacks into the profession of nursing in America.

C. 1. Staupers knew that black nurses had suffered great discrimination in World War I.

She vowed that would not happen again if she could help it.

2. So Staupers fought her own battle.

She fought it throughout the years of the American war effort.

She fought it on various fronts.

3. First, she fought the exclusion of black women from the Army and Navy Nurse Corps.

4. Then the Army established a quota system for black nurses.

She fought the quota system.

She fought it because it implied that black nurses were inferior to other nurses.

5. At one point, she fought another policy of the military.

It was the policy of having black nurses care for black soldiers and no others.

6. Later, she discovered the Army was finally assigning black nurses to care for white soldiers.

But those white soldiers included no Americans.

The white soldiers were German prisoners of war.

She fought that practice, too.

D. 1. These were tough battles.

Staupers eventually found a powerful ally.

That ally was First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt.

2. Eleanor Roosevelt began lobbying for black nurses.

3. She talked to Norman T. Kirk.

He was the surgeon general of the U.S. Army.

She talked to W.J.C. Agnew.

He was a rear admiral in the U.S. Navy.

Most of all, she talked to her husband.

Her husband was Franklin D. Roosevelt.

4. Meanwhile, Staupers staged a public confrontation with Norman T. Kirk.

It was a confrontation that received a good deal of coverage in the press.

5. Kirk described the dire shortage of nurses in the Army.

He predicted that a draft for nurses might be necessary.

He made his prediction in a speech at the Hotel Pierre.

The Hotel Pierre is in New York.

6. Staupers was in Kirk’s audience.

The audience was made up of about 300 people.

The audience included nurses.

It included politicians.

It included private citizens.

7. She rose to her feet.

She asked the surgeon general, “If nurses are needed so desperately, why isn’t the Army using colored nurses?”

8. She explained to the entire audience that there were 9,000 registered black nurses in the United States.

The Army had taken 247.

The Navy had taken none.

9. Kirk was visibly uncomfortable, according to newspaper reports.

He did not have much of an answer for Staupers.

E. 1. At about the same time, President Roosevelt announced his desire to amend the Selective Service Act of 1940.

He wanted it amended so that nurses could be drafted.

He made his desire known in a radio address.

The address was broadcast on January 6, 1945.

2. The public reaction was tremendous.

The irony of calling for a general draft while at the same time discriminating against black nurses was obvious to almost everyone.

3. Staupers showed a lot of political savvy in the way she handled the public’s dissatisfaction with the plans of the top brass.

4. She gave speeches.

She issued press releases.

She urged people to send telegrams to President Roosevelt.

5. The groups that sent messages of protest to the White House included the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

They included the Congress of Industrial Organizations.

They included the American Federation of Labor.

They included the United Council of Church Women.

They included the Catholic Interracial Council.

They included the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority.

They included the New York Citizens’ Committee of the Upper West Side.

6. The great wave of public protest had an effect.

The policies of exclusion, segregation, and quota systems for black nurses were ended.

They were dropped by the Army.

They were dropped by the Navy.

They were dropped by the War Department.

7. A few weeks later, a black woman was the first to break the color barrier in the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps.

She was Phyllis Dailey.

8. The Army also began to accept black nurses with no restrictions.

9. Most of the credit goes to one woman.

It goes to one woman alone.

It goes to Mabel K. Staupers.