Chapter 1 Answer Key

If some of your answers for the exercises in this unit vary a bit from those shown, your answers are not necessarily wrong. When marking clauses, you may have included slightly more or less than is shown here; such differences are inconsequential and to be expected.

Exercise 1.1

1. s = motive; υ = was; sub com = mysterious

2. s = I; υ = bought; do = suit

3. s = woman; υ = coughed

4. s = Caroline; υ = gave; io = Steven; do = choice

5. s = nectarines; υ = feel; sub com = ripe

Exercise 1.2

1. s = fans; υ = consider; do = Nolan Ryan; ob com = pitcher

2. s = pitcher; υ = shows; io = hitters; do = best stuff

3. s = season; υ = was; sub com = twenty-fourth

4. s = fastballs; υ = reached; do = speeds

5. s = fastball; υ = made; do = curveball; ob com = more effective

Exercise 1.3

1. beginning

2. prediction

3. organization

4. liar

5. gentleness

6. decision

7. allowance

8. reliability

9. collection

10. defiance

Exercise 1.4

1. s = To work hard today

2. s = What the world needs now

3. s = Tracking students into so-called ability groups

4. s = Outside that crazy office

5. s = What a racist or sexist joke reveals about its teller

Exercise 1.5

1. s = deprivation; υ = can prevent; do = retention

2. s = tongue; υ = has given; io = doctors; do = mirror

3. s = Malcolm X; υ = had made; do trips; υ = had altered; do = position

4. s = Nintendo Power magazine; υ = is published

5. s = Vincent van Gogh; υ = painted; do = suns; ob com = yellow

6. s = Competition; υ = has been defined

7. s = Chester F. Carlson; υ = should have named; do = intervention; ob com = after himself

8. s = mannequins; υ = wear; do = size 40 regular

9. s = size; υ = has been decreasing

10. s = people; υ = should blame; do = diet

Exercise 1.6

1. polished, oak

2. biggest, small

3. negative, best

4. deep, raspy

5. persistent, drastic

6. supporting, historical

7. crystal, big

8. tallest, old-fashioned, blackberry

9. final, difficult, challenging

10. dramatic, sunburnt, pale, white

Exercise 1.7

In each answer for this exercise, the words between the commas form the appositive, and the labeled parts of the clause form the kernel.

1. George Washington, the first president of the United States, loved peanut soup.

s = George Washington; υ = loved; do = peanut soup

2. John Quincy Adams, the sixth president, liked swimming nude in the Potomac River every morning at five o’clock.

s = John Quincy Adams; υ = liked; do = swimming

3. Zachary Taylor, a career officer in the army for most of his life, voted for the first time at the age of 62.

s = Zachary Taylor; υ = voted

4. James Buchanan, president from 1857 to 1861, was a bachelor throughout his entire life.

s = James Buchanan; υ = was; sub com = bachelor

5. Abraham Lincoln, an extremely persistent individual, won the presidency in 1860 after eight election losses in a row.

s = Abraham Lincoln; υ = won; do = presidency

Exercise 1.8

After you have crossed out the prepositional phrases and other modifiers, the remaining components that form the kernels are these:

1. s = Robin Burns; υ = is; sub com = officer; App.: the highest paid woman in the United States

2. s = Babe Ruth; υ = pitched

3. s = number; υ = exceeded; do = number

4. s = color; υ = has been; sub com = blue

5. s = Treasury Department; υ = dry-cleaned; do = money

6. s = female tree frog; υ = recognizes; do = connection

7. s = headquarters; υ = has; do = waterbed

8. s = matter; υ = is; sub com = duff

9. s = size; υ = was; sub com = 5 feet and 7 inches and 135 pounds

10. s = record; υ = was; sub com = I’ll Never Get Out of this World Alive”

Chapter 2 Answer Key

Exercise 2.1

1. s = Mexican-Americans; υ = have; do = families s = they; υ = can claim; do = rate United States, and they

2. s = gardeners; υ = wanted; do = melons s = they; υ = watered; do = them melons, so they

3. s = tissues; υ = are; sub com = great; s = sheets; υ = were invented sufferers, but those

4. s = Wilson and Smith; υ = had; do = problem; s = they; υ = joined; do = forces; υ = started; do = Alcoholics Anonymous problem, so they

5. s = people; υ = keep; do = resolutions; s = they; υ = don’t make; do = them weeks, or they

Exercise 2.2

1. s = you; υ = lick; do = stamp

s = you; υ = consume; do = one-tenth

Conj. = When

stamp, you

2. s = birth; υ = created; do = sensation

s = set; υ = had survived

Conj. = because

no punctuation added

3. s = Pretty Boy Floyd; υ = was known

Conj. = Although

robberies, he

4. s = people; υ = must live s = government; υ calls; do = it; ob com = city

Conj. = before

no punctuation added

5. s = Fitzgerald; υ = had completed; do = The Last Tycoon

s = it; υ = might have been; sub com = novel

Conj. = If

44, it

Exercise 2.3

1. Thomas Jefferson, who was certainly one of America’s most brilliant presidents, was broke when he died.

2. Monrovia, which is the capital of the West African nation of Liberia, was founded in 1822 and named after President James Monroe.

3. Herbert Hoover, who once gave an order that no White House staffers were to pet his dog, was supposedly worried that King Tut was becoming too attached to other people.

4. James Buchanan, whose 23-year-old fiancé broke off their engagement and died mysteriously a short time later, was the only president to remain a bachelor.

5. Grover Cleveland’s duties as a sheriff in New York State, which included serving as one county’s official hangman, resulted in his participation in the execution of two convicted murderers.

Exercise 2.4

1. Reduced: A quetzal, unable to take off into the air like other birds, has to jump off a tree branch backward to avoid snagging its 24-inch tail.

Moved: Unable to take off into the air like other birds, a quetzal has to jump off a tree branch backward to avoid snagging its 24-inch tail.

2. Reduced: Male narwhals, nicknamed “unicorns of the sea,” sport a single nine-foot-long tusk.

Moved: Nicknamed “unicorns of the sea,” male narwhals sport a single nine-foot-long tusk.

3. Reduced: Some biologists, puzzled by the hump on the back of the thorny devil, speculate that the lizard can push the hump up to create the illusion of a second head when it wants to confuse its enemies.

Moved: Puzzled by the hump on the back of the thorny devil, some biologists speculate that the lizard can push the hump up to create the illusion of a second head when it wants to confuse its enemies.

4. Reduced: A sloth, blessed with three very efficient curved claws on each foot, normally hangs from a tree for its daily 18-hour snooze.

Moved: Blessed with three very efficient curved claws on each foot, a sloth normally hangs from a tree for its daily 18-hour snooze.

5. Reduced: One scientist, curious about the basic color of the zebra, conducted a study and concluded that zebras are actually black with white stripes, not white with black stripes.

Moved: Curious about the basic color of the zebra, one scientist conducted a study and concluded that zebras are actually black with white stripes, not white with black stripes.

Exercise 2.5

Possible revisions for the run-on sentences are offered here. You may have come up with different revisions.

1. RO; them/this

For over 2,700 years, diamonds have had a certain mystique.

2. CS; India,/they

The first diamonds were discovered along riverbeds in south central India in about 800 B.C.

3. CS; years,/then;

source,/later South central India was the primary source of diamonds for about two thousand years. Then, South America became the major source; later, South Africa was the major source.

4. OK

5. CS; mines,/most

There are 19 diamond mines in the United States, most of which are around the border between Colorado and Wyoming.

Exercise 2.6

1. OK

2. CS; three C’s,/the

Diamonds are judged on the basis of the three C’s: carats, cut, and clarity.

3. RO; “carob seed”/carob

The word carat comes from the Greek word keration, which means “carob seed.” Carob seeds were used to measure the weight of diamonds long ago in India.

4. RO; measure/it

In the modern world of diamond dealing, a carat, which represents of an ounce, is a more standard measure.

5. CS; carats,/that

The largest diamond ever found was 3,106 carats, which equals about 1.3 pounds.

Exercise 2.7

1. F

The Statistical Abstract, which is produced annually by the U.S. Commerce Department, fills almost 1,000 pages.

2. OK

3. F

Massachusetts, for example, is the state with the highest number of doctors per 100,000 people.

4. F

New York has more lawyers per person than any other state.

5. OK

Exercise 2.8

1. F

Cross Your Fingers, Spit in Your Hat is a book about superstitions and folklore.

2. F

The most interesting superstitions are the ones about love and marriage.

3. OK

4. OK

5. F

The object of your desire will also love you if you give him or her a bowl of soup that is flavored with three drops of your blood.

Chapter 3 Answer Key

Exercise 3.1

1. Complex

Conj. = When

1919, Handley Page

Transport; s = it; υ = introduced; do = box lunches

s = Handley Page Transport;

υ = became; sub com = airline

2. Complex

Conj. = when

no punctuation added; s = no one; υ = was; sub com = surprised; s = Wilma P. Mankiller; υ = became; sub com = chief

3. Compound

Conj. = but

cans, but; s = drinkers;

υ = buy; do = beer; s = beer; υ = outsold; do = beer

4. Complex

Conj. = after

no punctuation added; s = Queen Victoria; υ = wore; do = in black; s = she; υ = lost; do = husband or Albert or husband Albert

5. Complex

Conj. = since

48, the royalties; s = Gibran;

υ = died; s = royalties; υ = have helped; do = people

Exercise 3.2

1. s = St. Nicholas

St. Nicholas, who was a fourth-century bishop in Asia Minor, is the patron saint of children and sailors.

2. s = The dog who guarded the gates of Hades

no punctuation should be added

3. s = Janet Reno

Janet Reno, who became U.S. Attorney General shortly before the cultrelated tragedy in Texas, was praised ... decisions.

4. s = The person who wrote the Oz books

no punctuation should be added

5. s = The average child who is between two and three years of age

no punctuation should be added

Exercise 3.3

1. s = A person

no punctuation should be added

2. s = The person

no punctuation should be added

3. s = The U.S. Senate

The U.S. Senate, which has been called “the most exclusive club in the world,” is never open to more than 100 members.

4. s = The grape

no punctuation should be added

5. s = The abbreviation lb. The abbreviation lb., which means pound, comes from the Latin word libra, meaning “scales.”

Exercise 3.4

1. Chubby Checker, whose real name was Ernest Evans, worked as a chicken plucker in a poultry shop before he became famous for doing “The Twist.”

2. Neil Sedaka, who had enjoyed a great deal of success as a songwriter and singer in the 1950s, made a comeback in the 1970s with the help of Elton John.

3. Critic Jon Landau, who wrote a rave review after seeing “the Boss” in concert in 1974, is responsible for the line “I saw rock ’n’ roll’s future, and its name is Bruce Springsteen.”

4. Annie Mae Bullock, who married Ike Turner in 1958, changed her name to Tina Turner.

5. The heart attack that left Jackie Wilson in a coma for the rest of his life occurred while the famous soul singer was performing on stage in Cherry Hill, New Jersey, on September 25, 1975.

Exercise 3.5

1. racetrack, a maiden

2. American Revolution, the Purple Heart

3. years, having

4. 1918, followed

5. khaki, meaning

Exercise 3.6

1. ducks, swans, geese, eagles, foxes, wolves, and

2. Fly patterns, flares, bombs, safety blitzes, and

3. 164 feet high, 148 feet wide, and

4. wisdom, wealth, power, and

5. Ariel, Miranda, Oberon, Titania, and

Exercise 3.7

1. (a) quick little smile

(b) generous, good-hearted smile

2. (a) serious military affair

(b) ridiculous, tragic affair

3. (a) perfect tea roses

(b) delicate, delightful roses

4. (a) creamy, buttery soup

(b) delicious bean soup

5. (a) skillful, thoughtful sculptor

(b) thoughtful Italian sculptor

Exercise 3.8

1. Timbuktu, you’ll Timbuktu, which ... gold, was settled

2. sundae, now ... treat, was ... parlor, and

3. October 25, 1940, Col. B.O. Davis

4. 1886, John Styth Pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist, will

5. light up, they experts, male

6. France, who ... old, is credited

7. fused, eroded Desert roses, which ... elements, are

8. Cicero, not George Washington

9. bread, a sweetbread

10. longest, heaviest ... python, a typical

Exercise 3.9

1. track; she

2. structure; it

3. bone; they

4. full-time job; high school girls

5. riflemen; oarsmen

Exercise 3.10

1. Caspian Sea; however, the

2. East; the less

3. The Gambler;—in fact, the

4. three inches; consequently, the

5. injury; for example, if

6. copyrighted work; in fact, it

7. hair; the wife

8. Casablanca; however, few people

9. bad luck; a talisman

10. amulets; a four-leaf clover

Exercise 3.11

1. (a) no punctuation should be added

(b) His idea, however, was

(c) great idea; however, it

2. (a) Ben’s; in fact, she

(b) no punctuation should be added

(c) She was, in fact, his

3. (a) no punctuation should be added

(b) is, therefore, going

(c) engineering; therefore, he

4. (a) no punctuation should be added

(b) children; for example, some

(c) youngsters, for example, speak

5. (a) no punctuation should be added

(b) choice; on the other hand, John is afraid

(c) John, on the other hand, thinks

Exercise 3.12

Only the parts of each item requiring additional punctuation appear here.

1. Those periods are the following: between three and ten months, between two and four years, between six and eight years, between 10 and 12 years, and between 14 and 16 years. sub com = the following

2. Santa’s eight tiny reindeer are Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donner, and Blitzen.

3. These are the seven wonders of the ancient world: the Great Pyramid of Cheops, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Tomb of King Mausolus at Halicarnassus, the Temple of Artemis, the Colossus of Rhodes, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia, and the lighthouse on the Isle of Pharos. sub com = wonders

4. But those who want to be more precise might use one of these terms: a bevy of quail, a muster of peacocks, a charm of finches, or an exaltation of larks.

do = one (or one of these terms)

5. Charles Biondin, the French acrobat and tightrope walker, crossed Niagara Falls in 1855, 1859, and 1860.

Exercise 3.13

1. Sea of Slaughter, which ... Press, was

2. Mowat, who is a Canadian, is

3. seaboard, Mowat

4. area, his conclusions

5. author, human beings ... mammals, birds, and fish of North America; in fact, Mowat

6. reasons: economic, recreational, and scientific

7. meat, hides, and fur

8. survived, but ... difficulty; for example, the wolf, the Plains buffalo, and

9. animals, such as the passenger pigeon, the sea mink, and the Eastern buffalo, are gone forever, driven into

10. harsh, tragic realities, and ... history; animals ... for sport, for fashion, for food, and for experimentation

Exercise 3.14

1. Sea of Slaughter, a ... 400 pages, points out

2. people, for example, believe

3. bird, which ... hour, did exist

4. 100 million, its natural

5. That enemy, of course, was deadly; it was man.

6. whale, once ... life forms, is

7. odds: the coyote

8. no additional punctuation necessary

9. predator, Mowat ... future, but ... individuals, not

10. rare, they ... sensitive, aware publication, it

Chapter 4 Answer Key

Exercise 4.1

The sample rewrites given here are not the only possibilities. You may have come up with other good revisions.

1. OK; s = beer

2. OK; s = hard candies and caramels

3. DM; s = U.S. Army

According to the U.S. Army, an M-1 rifle that is cared for properly should last 10,000 rounds.

4. DM; s = scientists Scientists believe that the sun, which is four to five billion years old, has a life span of 10 billion years.

5. DM; s = plastic surgeons Plastic surgeons estimate that a successful face lift performed upon average skin should last from six to 10 years.

Exercise 4.2

The following sample rewrites are not the only possibilities. You may have come up with other good revisions.

1. DM; s = Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is the home of the world’s largest bat, which can weigh up to 32 ounces and which has a wingspan that’s been measured at five feet, seven inches.

2. OK; s = basenji dog

3. DM; s = it

Swans, which are extremely long-lived, can survive up to one hundred years.

4. OK; s = goliath beetle

5. DM; s = zoos

Some zoos have black and white Bengal tigers that lack the tiger’s usual reddish orange coloring. The Bengais are all descendants of a single white male tiger named Bohan, who was found in a jungle in India around the middle of this century.

Exercise 4.3

These sample rewrites are not the only possible corrections. You may have come up with other strong revisions.

1. (a) In addition, if the teachers of the future are to come from the best class of students, they will need higher salaries, greater professional status, and more opportunities for advancement.

(b) In addition, if the teachers of the future are to come from among the best students, educators will need to earn more money, enjoy greater professional status, and have more opportunities for advancement.

2. (a) Seasoned travelers suggest that you take a daytime flight, eat as little as possible on the plane, and nap as much as you can while in the air.

(b) The suggestions of seasoned travelers include taking a daytime flight, eating as little airline food as possible, and napping as much as you can while you’re in the air.

3. (a) The child who is ready for kindergarten should be able to name at least three or four colors, draw or copy a square, repeat a series of four numbers without practice, tell the right hand from the left, and identify what things such as cars, chairs, and shoes are made of.

(b) If children can name three or four colors, draw or copy a square, repeat four numbers in a row without practice, tell their right hand from their left, and identify what such items as cars, chairs, and shoes are made of, then they are probably ready to start kindergarten.

Exercise 4.4

Here are possible rewrites; yours may differ.

1. The baby calf of a blue whale gains approximately 200 pounds per day.

2. Goldfish in captivity have reached the age of 80 and over.

3. (a) Storks observe the practice of monogamy.

(b) Storks are monogamous.

4. When an iguana is threatened, it uses its tail effectively as a whip.

5. Cats eat one-third of all the canned fish in the United States.

Exercise 4.5

Here are some possible rewrites; yours may differ.

1. Human beings can develop their physical senses to a much higher degree than most people realize.

2. Anyone can find enough examples from everyday life to determine that this is true.

3. For example, an experienced vintner can taste the amount of alcohol or acid in a particular wine to within one percent.

4. Expert color technicians can see differences between certain shades of red that are indistinguishable to the layperson.

5. Some professional bakers can measure the moisture content of bread dough to within two percent of accuracy just by its feel when they are kneading it.

Exercise 4.6

1. Zsa Zsa Gabor once said, “I’m a wonderful housekeeper. Every time I get a divorce, I keep the house.”

2. In 1787, the United States minted a copper coin with a simple motto: “Mind Your business.”

3. The Outer Limits, a science fiction TV series, always opened with the same line: “There is nothing wrong with your set.”

4. “Assassination is the extreme form of censorship,” claimed George Bernard Shaw, the famous playwright.

5. indirect quote; no change

Chapter 5 Answer Key

Throughout this chapter, the sample combinations offered are not the only possible revisions. You may have come up with other good revisions.

Exercise 5.1

A. 1. Two football teams from King’s Island, Alaska, were practicing before the 1938 New Year’s Day Ice Bowl game.

2. They had been practicing on a huge flat ice floe near their village.

3. When they went out to practice on December 18, 1937, they couldn’t find their practice field; gale-force winds had blown it away.

B. Traditionally, French boxers had kissed each other at the end of each bout, but that practice was officially banned by the French Boxing Federation in 1924.

C. 1. How slow can you go and still win?

2. The slowest time for a winning racehorse was set during a steeplechase in 1945.

3. The horse, which was named Never Mind II, refused a jump, so his jockey gave up and returned the horse to the paddock.

4. When the jockey arrived at the paddock, he learned that all the other horses had either fallen or been disqualified.

5. So he jumped on Never Mind II and rode him back onto the track.

6. Never Mind II won the two-mile race, normally finished in 4 minutes, in 11 minutes and 28 seconds.

D. 1. Here’s another odd bit of trivia from the world of horseracing.

2. A jockey named Hayes dropped dead immediately after winning the first race of his career on June 4, 1923.

E. 1. The “New York Nine” and the Knickerbockers played the first official baseball game in the United States on June 19, 1846.

2. During the game, a New York player started a long and rich baseball tradition by swearing at the umpire.

3. The New York player, who was named Davis, was fined six cents for his outburst.

F. 1. Hockey is known for its violence, and most of it seems to be intentional.

2. But one hockey game, which was played on the junior amateur level in Quebec in 1930, was marked by a very unusual incident of unintentional violence.

3. A puck that was lined at the goalie, Able Goldberry, struck a pack of matches in his pocket, and his uniform caught on fire.

4. The fire was put out by players and spectators, but Able Goldberry was badly burned in the bizarre incident.

G. 1. During a basketball game between sophomores and seniors on March 16, 1937, at St. Peter’s High School in Fairmount, Virginia, all of the players on one team, with the exception of Pat McGee, fouled out.

2. When all the others fouled out, the game was tied at 32 - 32 with four minutes left to play.

3. It didn’t look good for McGee’s team.

4. But McGee faced the five players on the opposing team, scored a goal, made a foul shot, defended his team’s basket, and prevented his opponents from scoring.

5. The final score was 35-32: McGee had won the game for his team single-handedly.

H. 1. In 1958, Robert Legge, a 53-year-old Navy doctor, swam the 28.5-mile-long Panama Canal in 21 hours and 54 minutes.

2. During the swim, he encountered only two living creatures: a boa constrictor and an iguana.

3. At times, swells caused by heavy ship traffic made his progress difficult.

4. When he arrived at Balboa, he was greeted by several hundred well-wishers and a toll collector, who charged Legge 72 cents, the minimum fee for a one-ton vessel in ballast.

I. 1. In 1890, a best-of-seven postseason baseball series was played between New York of the National League and St. Louis of the American Association.

2. New York had won three games and St. Louis had won two when the St. Louis Browns won game six to tie up the series at three games apiece.

3. After they evened up the series, the Browns stayed out all night celebrating, and the next day they claimed to be “too tuckered out” to take the field; as a consequence, the final game was canceled, and the best-of-seven series stands as “tied 3 - 3” in the record books today.

J. 1. In 1865, Louis Fox was playing pool against John Deery in Rochester, New York, for a $1,000 purse.

2. Louis Fox, a billiard champion, was enjoying a very comfortable lead when a fly suddenly landed on the cue ball.

3. The problem was how to get the fly to move without moving the cue ball.

4. Those who were present tried everything, but the fly would not budge, no matter what anyone did.

5. Fox was more than bugged by the presence of the fly; in fact, he became completely rattled.

6. Angry at miscuing and losing the match to Deery, he rushed out of the pool hall.

7. Several days later, his body was found floating in the river near the pool hall, and many people assumed that Fox committed suicide after his strange loss.

Exercise 5.2

A. 1. Several years ago, the editors of Psychology Today asked their readers if they remembered their dreams.

2. Of the more than 1,000 readers who responded, approximately 95 percent reported that they do remember some of their dreams, and about 68 percent claimed to have a recurring dream.

3. Two themes were represented most frequently in the recurring dreams: the experience of being chased and the sensation of falling.

4. The readers reported other recurring themes, including flying, appearing naked or almost naked in a public place, being unprepared to take a test, and returning to one’s childhood home.

5. About 45 percent of the readers said that they sometimes dream about celebrities, usually sex symbols and rock stars.

6. After sex symbols and rock stars, people most often reported dreaming about politicians and historical figures, such as Abraham Lincoln.

7. Lincoln himself put a lot of stock in dreams; in fact, he believed that one dream had forewarned him that he would be assassinated.

8. Of those who responded to the Psychology Today survey, 28 percent had seen themselves die in a dream; that sounds very ominous, but most experts say a dream of one’s own death should not be at all frightening.

B. 1. Psychologist Ann Faraday, author of The Dream Game, says that a dream about one’s death often indicates something far different from what you might expect.

2. She says it usually symbolizes the death of an obsolete self-image and signals an opportunity to move to a higher state of self-definition.

3. The interpretation of dreams in general is a highly controversial area.

4. Those who follow Sigmund Freud believe that dreams are the key to the unconscious.

5. Those who follow the thinking of Nobel laureate Francis Crick believe that dreams are a garbage disposal for the mind.

6. According to Crick, the function of dreams is to clear out useless information that interferes with rational thought and memory.

7. A third school of thought consists of psychologists who believe that dreams are important not in themselves, but only because people think they are important.

8. These psychologists believe that people give dreams their meaning, influence, and power.

Exercise 5.3

A. 1. The People’s Almanac #3, by David Wallechinsky and Irving Wallace, includes a cautionary tale for anyone who has ever daydreamed about what it would be like to be a giant.

2. It’s not a tall tale; it’s the true story of Robert Wadlow, probably the tallest person who ever lived.

3. Wadlow, who was born in Alton, Illinois, on February 22, 1918, was a normal eight-and-a-half-pound baby boy.

4. The medical history of his family, in which there were no unusually tall members, was normal.

5. But he grew rapidly and steadily from his birth until his death.

6. At six months, he weighed 30 pounds, which is about double the weight of a normal baby at that age.

7. When he was weighed again at 18 months, a time when the average toddler weighs 24 or 25 pounds, Wadlow weighed 62 pounds.

8. He was five feet, four inches tall and 105 pounds when he underwent his first thorough examination at the age of 5.

9. Wearing clothes made for 17-year-olds, he started school when he was five and a half.

10. When he was measured again at the age of 8, he had reached a height of six feet, and his father, Robert Wadlow, Sr., started wearing hand-me-downs from his son.

B. 1. After Wadlow was diagnosed at age 12 with excessive pituitary gland secretion, careful records of his growth were kept at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri.

2. He grew an average of three inches a year throughout his life; at his death on July 15, 1940, his height was eight feet, eleven inches.

3. His early death was not surprising.

4. Pituitary giants usually die before middle age because their organs outgrow the ability to function correctly.

5. Because physical coordination becomes difficult for a giant, he or she usually has many more accidents than a normal-sized person has.

6. A giant’s accidents also tend to result in more serious injuries, which is compounded by the fact that a giant’s body heals more slowly.

7. Wadlow in particular had more than his share of physical problems, beginning with surgery for a double hernia when he was 2 years old.

8. Everything he encountered in this world was on the wrong scale: school desks were too small, doorways were too low, beds were too short, and chairs were too tiny.

9. He had terrible problems with his feet.

10. Doctors advised Wadlow to walk as much as possible to strengthen his feet, but the walking damaged his arches even more severely.

11. For a while, he attended Shurtieff College with the hope of becoming a lawyer, but he had to drop out because it was too difficult for him to walk from classroom to classroom.

C. 1. Though Robert Wadlow’s life was marked by tragedy, it wasn’t completely tragic.

2. He was intelligent and charming, and he had good parents who tried to make his life as normal and as full as possible.

3. His boyhood days were filled with typical things: hobbies, sports, Boy Scouts, and books.

4. But his life was also filled with things that were not so typical.

5. The more unusual aspects of Wadlow’s story started when he was discovered by the media at age 9.

6. It happened when the Associated Press came across a photograph and circulated it in newspapers all across the nation.

7. That’s when Robert Wadlow became a public person.

8. From that time on, he had to deal with a steady stream of people: reporters, medical researchers, curiosity seekers, and entrepreneurs.

9. Theatrical agents who wanted his services made very attractive offers to pressure him to perform.

10. His parents rejected all opportunities to make money from his misfortune.

11. He did, however, make paid appearances for the Peters Shoe Company in St. Louis.

12. This endorsement arrangement was appropriate because Wadlow had to have specially made shoes; unfortunately, he often outgrew new shoes even before they were delivered.

13. Robert Wadlow also worked for a short time in 1937 for the Ringling Brothers Circus in New York and Boston, but there were strict conditions in his contract.

14. The conditions stated that he would make only three-minute appearances in the center ring in ordinary street clothes; he would not appear in the sideshow.

15. Wadlow occasionally made appearances for churches to raise funds for charities; he accepted no pay for these activities.

D 1. In 1936, Robert Wadlow had a visit from a smalltown Missouri doctor who was studying giantism.

2. He happened to catch Wadlow on one of his relatively rare bad days.

3. The doctor later wrote an article about Wadlow for the Journal of the American Medical Association in which he described Wadlow as dull and surly.

4. According to The People’s Almanac #3, this characterization is generally true of most pathological giants, but it was not true of Robert Wadlow, who was truly an exceptional human being.

5. The unflattering description in the medical journal hurt and disillusioned Wadlow for two reasons.

6. First, all his life he had put up with medical researchers who had invaded his privacy and taken up his time, and he had done so voluntarily and graciously.

7. Second, the article was based on the quick impressions the doctor had made after a visit of less than an hour.

8. Wadlow and his family wanted his character vindicated, so they took legal action against the doctor and the American Medical Association (AMA).

9. The AMA strongly defended the doctor, so the litigation dragged on and on and was not resolved when Wadlow died at the age of 22.

10. Partly as a result of this episode, Wadlow stipulated that after his death he wanted his body to be kept out of the hands of medical researchers.

11. In accordance with his wishes, there was no examination of his body after his death.

12. He was buried in a custom-built 10-foot-long casket, which was placed in an almost impregnable tomb in his hometown.

13. More than 46,000 people came to the funeral home in Alton, Illinois, to pay their last respects to Robert Wadlow.

Exercise 5.4

A. 1. Judith Rodin, who teaches psychology at Yale University, has been involved in important studies on a number of topics, including bystander intervention, learned helplessness, obesity, and aging.

2. She is interested in relationships in general, but she is especially interested in the relationship between the mind and the body and the relationship between biology and environment.

3. Older people, in particular, have benefitted from Rodin’s research.

4. In fact, it’s been said that it’s not easy for her to find places in Connecticut where she can continue to study the problems of older people in nursing homes because the state’s nursing homes have improved so much as a result of her work.

5. At one point in her career, Rodin, along with psychologist Ellen Langer, conducted a fascinating study on perceived choice among residents of nursing homes, and this study was described in Psychology Today.

6. Perceived choice is the amount of control that a person believes he or she has over events.

7. On the basis of laboratory studies, Rodin already knew that the degree to which people feel they can exert control in important areas of their lives influences three things: their happiness, their ability to perform, and their sense of well-being.

B. 1. Judith Rodin and Ellen Langer wanted to investigate perceived choice or control in a real-life setting, so they chose a nursing home.

2. They were especially interested in the relationship between the degree of control that the nursing home residents thought they had and the residents’ health and happiness.

3. Rodin and Langer believed that improvements in well-being would be quite obvious among the sick and frail residents of a nursing home once they were given increased control.

4. It would be difficult to show the positive benefits of an increased sense of control in people who were younger and healthier because, in that group, any benefits would more likely be in the form of prevention rather than improvement.

5. The results of the study were indeed dramatic.

6. Nursing home residents in the study were given new choices, many of which seemed quite trivial, in areas in which they previously had no choice.

7. For example, residents were allowed to choose when they could see a movie and how to arrange their rooms.

C. 1. The choices may have been trivial, but the results were not.

2. Using a variety of methods of measurement, the researchers discovered that the residents’ new sense of control had a number of effects: the residents’ health and overall mental state improved, and dropped the death rate at the nursing home.

3. Why would having new choices in trivial areas of life produce such profound effects?

4. Rodin explains that the choices seem trivial only to people who have a broad range of choices in their lives; to those who have little or no choice, any choice at all has a great impact.

5. A sense of control or perceived choice created a profound psychological state in which the residents felt better about themselves.

6. They felt a sense of power, which caused them to respond more positively to family members, other residents, and nurses and doctors. In turn, everyone in their lives responded more positively toward them.

7. Choosing when to see a movie or where to put a picture on a wall might seem trivial, but Rodin says that small bit of control can have an energizing effect on every aspect of an older person’s life.

Exercise 5.5

A. 1. Mabel Keaton Staupers, a fast-talking, energetic black woman, was one of the outstanding women of the twentieth century.

2. Almost single-handedly, she broke a link in a chain, a chain that had kept many black women from using their talents and skills and had denied them their full rights as American citizens.

3. A classic David and Goliath tale, her fascinating and inspiring story is told in Black Leaders of the Twentieth Century.

4. It is the story of a battle between one woman, the executive secretary of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (NACGN), and two branches of the military, the U.S. Army and the Navy.

5. Mabel K. Staupers’s accomplishment must be viewed within the context of a certain period in American history if it is to be fully appreciated.

6. It was around the time that the United States entered into World War II, and for many reasons, including the anti-Nazi mood of the nation, American blacks recently had become much less accepting of the racial status quo.

7. For many blacks, their unequal treatment in their own country was highlighted in an ironic way by America’s opposition to Nazi Germany.

8. In opposing the philosophy and actions of Germany’s Nazis, the U.S. government, many members of the press, and the public in general did a lot of talking about the ideals upon which America had been founded.

9. They contrasted Germany to an America that was pure in the realization of its democratic ideals and just in its treatment of people of different religious, ethnic, and racial backgrounds.

10. Such statements about this country struck some Americans, both blacks and whites, as hypocritical and ironic.

11. Summing up the situation, Walter White wrote, “World War II has immeasurably magnified the Negro’s awareness of the disparity between the American profession and practice of democracy.”

B. 1. It was during this time that Mabel K. Staupers used patience, persistence, and a great deal of political savvy to begin her long fight for the rights of black nurses.

2. Staupers, who was born in Barbados, West Indies, in 1890, came to New York with her parents in 1903.

3. After graduating from Freedmen’s Hospital School of Nursing in Washington, D.C., in 1917, she began her career as a private nurse in New York City.

4. She played an important role in establishing the Booker T. Washington Sanatorium in Harlem, which was the first facility in the area where black doctors could treat patients.

5. Then she worked for 12 years as the executive secretary for the Harlem Committee of the New York Tuberculosis and Health Association.

6. Finally in 1934, Staupers was appointed executive secretary of the NACGN, and in this position, she had one goal: to help black nurses become fully integrated into the mainstream of American health care.

7. Then the United States entered World War II in 1941.

8. Because the war created a great demand for nurses to care for the wounded, Mabel K. Staupers had a perfect opportunity to realize her goal.

9. That demand could result in the acceptance of black nurses into the Army and Navy Nurse Corps, which would be the vehicle for the full inclusion of blacks into the profession of nursing in America.

C. 1. Staupers knew that black nurses had suffered great discrimination in World War I, and she vowed that would not happen again.

2. So Staupers fought her own battle on various fronts throughout the years of the American war effort.

3. First, she fought the exclusion of black women from the Army and Navy Nurse Corps.

4. Later, when the Army established a quota system for black nurses, she fought the quota system because it implied that black nurses were inferior to other nurses.

5. At one point, she also fought the military’s policy of having black nurses care for black soldiers and no others.

6. The Army finally assigned black nurses to care for white soldiers, but only white soldiers who were German prisoners of war, not American, so she fought that practice, too.

D. 1. These were tough battles, but Staupers eventually found a powerful ally in First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt.

2. Eleanor Roosevelt began lobbying for black nurses.

3. She talked to Norman T. Kirk, surgeon general of the U.S. Army, W.J.C. Agnew, a rear admiral in the U.S. Navy, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, her husband.

4. Meanwhile, Staupers staged a public confrontation with Norman T. Kirk that received a good deal of press coverage.

5. In a speech at the Hotel Pierre in New York, Kirk described the dire shortage of nurses in the Army and predicted that a draft for nurses might be necessary.

6. Staupers was in Kirk’s audience of about 300 people, which included nurses, politicians, and private citizens.

7. She rose to her feet and asked the surgeon general, “If nurses are needed so desperately, why isn’t the Army using colored nurses?”

8. She explained to the audience that, while there were 9,000 black registered nurses in the United States, the Army had taken 247 and the Navy had taken none.

9. According to newspaper reports, Kirk was visibly uncomfortable and didn’t have much of an answer for Staupers.

E. 1. At about the same time, President Roosevelt announced in a radio address on January 6, 1945, that he wanted to amend the Selective Service Act of 1940 so that nurses could be drafted.

2. The public reaction was tremendous; the irony of calling for a general draft while at the same time discriminating against black nurses was obvious to almost everyone.

3. Staupers showed a lot of political savvy in the way she handled the public’s dissatisfaction with the plans of the top brass.

4. She gave speeches, issued press releases, and urged people to send telegrams to President Roosevelt.

5. The groups that sent messages of protest to the White House included the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Industrial Organizations, the American Federation of Labor, the United Council of Church Women, the Catholic Interracial Council, the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, and the New York Citizens’ Committee of the Upper West Side.

6. The great wave of public protest caused the Army, the Navy, and the War Department to drop the policies of exclusion, segregation, and quota systems for black nurses.

7. A few weeks later, Phyllis Dailey was the first black woman to break the color barrier in the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps.

8. The Army also began to accept black nurses with no restrictions.

9. Most of the credit goes to one woman alone: Mabel K. Staupers.

Chapter 6 Answer Key

Exercise 6.1

1. a carpenter builds

carpenters build

2. one star shines

all the stars shine

3. the golfer putts

golfers putt

4. roses grow

a rose grows

5. the chimneys smoke

the chimney smokes

6. a pitcher pitches

pitchers pitch

7. one loaf rises

the loaves rise

8. bombs explode

a bomb explodes

9. the popsicle melts

popsicles melt

10. last-minute shoppers rush

a last-minute shopper rushes

Exercise 6.2

1. the article explains

the articles explain

2. one baby cries

all the babies cry

3. one player wins

four players win

4. the team performs

the teams perform

5. the ink spots dry

the ink spot dries

6. the soldiers march

a soldier marches

7. the telephone rings

telephones ring

8. ideas form

an idea forms

9. chickens hatch

a chicken hatches

10. a peacemaker pacifies

peacemakers pacify

Exercise 6.3

1. movie has

movies have

2. attitude is

attitudes are

3. carriers were

carrier was

4. pretzels are

pretzel is

5. fingernail was

fingernails were

Exercise 6.4

Note: The subject of each clause is itaticized here.

1. pounds are; intake was; Forecasters say; increases are; Meat and fruit appear

2. term is

3. fan cares; names were

4. habits begin

5. Final Payments and The Company of Women are; Men and Angels is

Exercise 6.5

Note: The subject of each clause is italicized here.

1. One ends; This happens; owner plunks ... forces; one shares

2. nuts stay; they remain; pecans and Brazil nuts keep; you store

3. Moonbeams are ... take

4. life span depends; moisture is; moisture and oil affect; cards are; condition is; deck lasts; pack has; cards show; they slow; they are

5. series is; length is;

earthquakes have; one was

Exercise 6.6

1. murdered; past

2. was introduced; vp

3. damaged; adj

4. distinguished; adj

5. captured; past

6. admired; adj

7. was established; vp

8. are experienced; vp

9. is supposed; vp

10. showed; past

Exercise 6.7

1. no change

2. change would always be to has always been or was always

3. no change

4. change could have been to had been or were

5. change contained to contain

6. change had to have; change offered to offer

7. omit would or change would to can; change would need to need or will need

8. no change

9. change would also be to are also

10. no change

11. change had to has; change would have to has; change were to are

12. no change

13. no change

Exercise 6.8

1. one librarian’s duties

two librarians’ duties

2. the child’s excitement

the children’s excitement

3. the dancer’s shoes

both dancers’ shoes

4. one boy’s pet chameleon

three boys’ pet chameleons

5. the family’s history

the two families’ histories

6. the woman’s schedule

the women’s schedules

7. the poet’s images

many poets’ images

8. one rabbit’s carrots

all the rabbits’ carrots

9. one drummer’s performance

the drummers’ performance

10. the businessman’s trips

the businessmen’s trips

Exercise 6.9

1. the mayor’s priorities

2. the pilots’ training

3. Jerry Seinfeld’s comic talents

4. the coaches’ game plan

5. the vendor’s ice-cream sandwiches

6. the babies’ toys

7. the friends’ agreement

8. Whitney Houston’s voice

9. Rob Morrow’s role in Northern Exposure

10. the clowns’ role in the circus

Exercise 6.10

1. the National Restaurant Association’s question

2. The research organization’s national survey; Americans’ top five restaurant food choices

3. the nation’s cafes and restaurants

4. restaurant diners’ top menu choices

5. A typical New Yorker’s order

6. people’s favorites

7. anyone’s guess; North Dakotans’ restaurant preferences

8. residents’ first loves

9. a restaurant’s menu

10. restaurant customers’ tastes

Exercise 6.11

1. A parent’s greatest fear

2. no apostrophe needed

3. women’s concerns; the couple’s list

4. Hechinger’s how-to book

5. many children’s training

Exercise 6.12

1. it was; ante. = Medal of Honor

2. it; ante. = the Hurley Machine Company

3. They were; ante. = Nikon cameras

4. It has, its; ante. = Salvation Army

5. he was; ante. = Neanderthal man

6. his; ante. = neither Gary Player nor his son

7. their; ante. = Ostrich eggs it; ante. = one

8. it; ante. = the orchestra

9. them; ante. = Paper straws

10. (a) its, its; ante. = empire

(b) they, their; ante. = people

Exercise 6.13

1. it was; ante. = stamp

2. they will; ante. rulers

it expires; ante. = a lease

3. its; ante. = U.S. Football

League

4. its; ante. = Fairy

Investigation Society

5. their; ante. = tarantulas

Exercise 6.14

1. him

2. she

3. them

4. I

5. we

6. her

7. they

8. me

9. he

10. me

Exercise 6.15

1. than; too

2. principal; than; there

3. to; through

4. principle; course; effect; number; to; its

5. who’s; than; you’re; your; to

6. finely; two; than

7. finally; threw; passed; than; conscience

8. accept; Their

9. number; than

10. It’s; there

11. you’re; too; have; Its; number

12. course; there; affect; to

13. too; here; two

14. number; bear; too

15. there; affect; an; to; course; conscience; too

Exercise 6.16

1. New York Museum of Modern Art; French artist Henri Matisse’s Le Bateau

2. Chaucer; “Love is blind,”; William Shakespeare

3. Lincoln Memorial; Washington, D.C.

4. Hemingway; American; The Sun Also Rises; A Farewell to Arms; For Whom the Bell Tolls; The Old Man and the Sea; Fridays

5. Sudden Impact; Clint Eastwood; “Make my day.”

6. Volkswagen Beetle

7. Russian

8. President Jimmy Carter

9. West; Cheyenne, Wyoming; “Hell on Wheels.”

10. John Lindsay; New York City; Rosebud