Remember, your writing is an argument - your argument
Citing, referencing and avoiding plagiarism
Mentioning, summarising, paraphrasing and quoting, while citing and referencing appropriately, are all ways of bringing the work of others into your argument and duly acknowledging them. It is helpful to remind yourself that the context in which a source was written is very unlikely to be the same as the document you are writing. The source you are using was written for a different purpose, and probably for a different audience, than the assignment you are writing. Seeing it this way, you are less likely to lapse into simply saying what a source said, in the same or a similar way. Instead, you are taking the essence of what the author(s) said and shaping it to apply to your own argument. While duly acknowledging the author(s), you are nevertheless making their contribution to your argument your own.
Key points in the chapter
1Rigorous conventions for citing and referencing are used in academic writing in order to acknowledge appropriately the work of others.
2Harvard style (author-date) and numerical style are the two major systems of citing and referencing, each with many variants.
3Unless information or ideas are common knowledge, the source of material should be cited and referenced.
4Mentioning, summarising, paraphrasing and quoting are ways in which sources are brought into, and referred to in, academic writing.
5Plagiarism concerns using information and ideas from other people’s work, in writing, without appropriately acknowledging the source.
6Plagiarism is unacceptable practice in academic writing. It is avoided by employing a wide range of strategies, from developing confidence in your own words, carefully tracking information gathered from sources, knowing how to adapt source material for use, to citing and referencing appropriately.
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Answer for Chapter 9
Activity 9.1: An abstract is a summary
(a)(i) Background/context lies in sentences 1-2.
(ii)Aim, sentence 3.
(iii)Method, sentence 4.
(iv)Results, sentence 5.
(v)Conclusion, sentence 6.
(b)The abstract is balanced. However, if the word count limit were 150 words, then more detail could have been provided about the results.