Glossary of Publishing Terms - Publishing Terms

AMA Manual of Style - Stacy L. Christiansen, Cheryl Iverson 2020

Glossary of Publishing Terms
Publishing Terms

This glossary is intended to define terms commonly encountered during editing and publishing as well as some industry terms that also have a more common vernacular meaning. The glossary is not all-inclusive. New terms and new usage of existing terms will emerge with time and advances in technology.

abstract: A brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, or conference proceeding used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper’s purpose. Abstracts should stand alone and contain sufficient information for a reader to understand the main hypothesis, results, and conclusions of a paper without any further information. See also extract and call-out.

acid-free paper: Paper made by alkaline sizing, a treatment that improves the paper’s resistance to liquid and vapor and improves the paper’s permanence.

acknowledgment: The part of a book or article that thanks people, other than the authors, who had a role in the writing, research, collection, and review of data or other tasks related to the published work.

advertorial: Promotional or advertising content that has the appearance of editorial content (see 5.12.3, Advertorials).

align: To place text and/or graphics to line up horizontally or vertically with related elements.

analytics: Data monitored to assess the performance of an online publication or website, which includes usage (such as views, downloads, and visitors), citations, media coverage, social media activity, interactions such as subscriptions or account creation, and other metrics.

ANSI: American National Standards Institute.

API: Application program interface. A series of action-oriented functions that programmers use to pass data and objects between different applications and operating systems.

application: A computer program that enables the user to perform a specific task, such as a word processor, a web browser, or a graphic tool. Applications that are primarily used on mobile devices are typically called apps.

archive: To copy files for backup purposes or to store files or data in a repository.

art repair, art rebuilding: Replacing text, symbols, arrows, and lines on line art to produce illustrations that are consistent in format, type, and size.

article processing charge (APC): A fee charged to authors to make a work publicly available by open access. See also open access.

ascender: The part of lowercase letters, such as d, f, h, and k, that extends above the midportion or x-height of the letter.

ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A code representing an alphanumeric group of characters that is recognized by most computers and computer programs.

attribute: XML term for a name-value pair associated with an XML element that modifies certain features of the element. For example, in JATS XML tagging, the tag name “@corresp” is used for the attribute named “Corresponding Author.” See also element.

author’s editor: An editor who substantially edits an author’s manuscript and prepares it to meet the requirements for publication in a particular journal.

back up: Save copies of digital files in the cloud or on disk, tape, or other medium.

backstrip: A strip of paper affixed to the bound edges of paper that form a journal’s spine.

bad break: A poor or potentially confusing arrangement of type at the end of a line or the bottom or top of a page or column. Examples include a paragraph that ends with 1 or 2 words at the top of a page or column (widow) or the first line of a paragraph that starts at the bottom of a page or column (orphan), a heading that falls on the last line of a page or column, an improperly hyphenated word or acronym, or the second part of a properly hyphenated word starting a page.

bandwidth: The capacity of a communication system in transferring data.

banner: A rectangular graphic at the top of a web page. Also, in advertising, a banner advertisement is typically a rectangular advertisement placed on a website above or below (or on a side of) the site’s main content and may be linked to the advertiser’s website. Vertical banner advertisements are sometimes called tower advertisements or skyscraper advertisements.

baseline: The imaginary line on which the letters in a line of type appear to rest.

basis weight: The weight of paper determined by the weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a standard size for a specific grade. For example, 500 sheets, 25 × 38 in, of 80-lb coated paper will weigh 80 lb.

baud rate: In telecommunications and electronics, the signaling rate; a baud is the number of changes to the transmission media per second in a modulated signal.

binary system: A system of numbers using only the digits 1 and 0 for all values; it is the basis for digital computers.

binding: (1) The process by which printed units or pages are attached to form a book, journal, or pamphlet, including operations such as folding, collating, stitching, or gluing. Types of binding include loose-leaf binding, perfect binding, saddle-stitch binding, and selective binding. (2) The cover and spine of a book or journal.

bit: A binary digit, either 0 or 1; the smallest unit of digital information.

bitmap (bmp): Also called raster graphic image or digital image, a data file or structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of color, on a computer monitor, paper, or other display device.

bitmap fonts: Low-resolution fonts designed for computer screens, whose characters are represented by bitmaps or by a pattern of dots.

blanket: Fabric coated with rubber or other material that is clamped around a printing cylinder to transfer ink from the press plate to the paper.

bleed: A printed image that runs off the edge of a printed page. A partial bleed extends above, below, or to the side of the established print area but does not continue off the page.

blind folio: A page number counted but not printed on the page.

blind image: An image that fails to print because of ink receptivity error.

blind review: A process in which reviewer names (single blind) or reviewer and author names (double blind) are kept anonymous during peer review.

blog: Short for weblog. A blog is a journal-style website that is frequently updated and intended for general public consumption. Blogs generally represent the personality of their authors.

blueline(s): The proof sheet(s) of a book or magazine printed in blue ink that shows exactly how the pages will look when they are printed.

blueprint, blackprint: A photoprint made from film that is used to check the position and relative arrangement of text and image elements.

body type: The type characteristics used for the main body text of a work.

boilerplate: A section of text that can be reused without changes, often programmatically inserted into content.

boldface (bf): A typeface that is heavier and darker than the text face used.

bps: Bits per second. A measurement of the speed with which data travel from one place to another.

broadside: Printed text or illustrations positioned on the length rather than the width of the page, requiring the reader to turn the publication on its side to read it; usually used for tables and figures that are wider than the normal width of a publication. Also called landscape orientation.

browser: A program for searching and accessing information on the web.

bug: Something that causes an error in computer software or hardware.

bullet: A dot of a heavy weight (•) used to highlight individual elements in a list.

byline: A line of text at the beginning of an article listing the authors’ names (see 2.2, Author Bylines and End-of-Text Signatures, and 5.1.1, Authorship: Definition, Criteria, Contributions, and Requirements).

byte: A unit of digital information that can code for a single alphanumeric symbol; 1 byte equals 8 to 64 bits.

calibrate: To adjust a device, such as a scanner or a monitor, image setter, or printing press, to more precisely reproduce color.

caliper: Thickness of paper or film measured in terms of thousandths of an inch (mils or points); also the tool used to measure the thickness of paper.

call-out: Reprinted text, usually bolder and larger than that of the original text, used to place emphasis, improve design, or fill white space. See also extract and pullout quotes.

camera-ready: Copy, including graphics and text, that is ready to be photographed for reproduction without further composition or alteration. Although photo offset printing has been largely replaced by digital-to-plate printing and desktop publishing, the term is still used to signify that a document is ready to be made into a printing plate.

Cap: As a proofreading or editing mark, short for capital letter.

caption: The text accompanying an illustration or photograph (see 4.0, Tables, Figures, and Multimedia).

cascading peer review: Process by which a manuscript is transferred from one journal to another within a group of journals or publisher.

cascading style sheet (CSS): Programmable guide for adding style (type, font, color, spacing) to web pages and documents.

cell: In tables or spreadsheets, a unit in an array formed by the intersection of a column and a row (see 4.0, Tables, Figures, and Multimedia).

central processing unit (CPU): The component in a computer that interprets instructions and processes data contained in software.

CEPS: Color electronic prepress systems. Electronic color equipment used to perform electronic retouching and pagination.

character: A letter, numeral, symbol, or punctuation mark.

character count: The number of characters and spaces in a document. A manual character count is done by counting the number of characters and spaces in an average line of the manuscript, multiplying that number by the number of lines on the manuscript page, and multiplying that number by the total number of manuscript pages. Word-processing programs can provide an exact character count and word count.

circulation: The total number of copies (if printed) of a publication sold and distributed. Opinions differ on metrics of online “circulation” and the field is evolving— number of page views, minutes spent reading, unique visitors, and “shares” and “mentions” (promotion and amplification of the article or website in other media) have all been used as ways to quantify readers.

citation: A specific reference to a source for substantiation in a scholarly paper.

citation analysis: An analysis of the number of times a published article is cited in the reference list of subsequently published articles.

cloud: Internet-based computing, in which shared resources and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand. Instead of buying dedicated hardware and having it depreciate, organizations can share computing and digital storage infrastructure and pay as they go. Storing information “in the cloud” refers to this model of off-site digital storage.

CMYK:  Abbreviation for the 4 process printing colors: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.

collaborator: Nonauthor contributor to a work, typically a member of a group-authored manuscript.

collective work: A publication, such as an anthology or encyclopedia or other collection, in which a number of contributions are assembled into a collective whole. There are 2 types of authorship in a collective work: (1) authorship of the collective work as a whole, which may include revisions, editing, compilation, and similar authorship that went into putting the work into final form, and (2) authorship of the individual contributions (see 5.6, Intellectual Property: Ownership, Access, Rights, and Management).

colophon: A summary of information about the publication or the publication’s production methods or specifications; also the publisher’s emblem or trademark.

color breaks: Separating elements of a piece of artwork that will print in more than 1 color. A second or third color proof may be attached to a black proof to show the color screen on artwork.

color correct: To change the color values in a set of film separations or, using a software application, to correct or compensate for errors in photography, scanning, separation, and output.

color separation: Separation of artwork into component films of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK) in preparation for printing.

compilation: A section of a publication that is made up of a group of items, for example, letters or book reviews that are run together as opposed to each article starting on a new page.

composite figure: A figure that is composed of more than 1 type of element (eg, halftone, line art, 4-color).

composition: The arrangement of type, graphics, and typographic characteristics for printing or display in an electronic image of text (such as a PDF).

compression: A computer technique of eliminating redundant information, such as blank lines from a document or white space from an image, to reduce the file size for faster transmission or more compact storage of data.

computer-assisted composition: A process in which text in digital form is processed through a set of typesetting strictures that dictate the type size and font, hyphenation and justification, character and word spacing, and all typographical requirements needed to typeset the text. The data stream created from this process is used to drive an image setter for typesetting and printing a page of text.

condensed type: A narrow version of a typeface, designed to fit more text on each line (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

content management system (CMS): Software that enables management, storage, and tracking of content and workflows.

context-sensitive editor: A software program that uses document structure to determine which elements are appropriate to insert in a particular context within a document (such as an XML editor).

continuous tone: An image that has gradations of tone from dark to light, in contrast to an image formed of pure blacks and whites, such as a pen-and-ink drawing or a page of type (see also halftone and duotone).

controlled circulation: Copies of or access to a publication distributed to a select list of recipients, usually without charge.

cookie: Message given to a web browser by a server to identify users.

copy: Any matter, including a manuscript in handwritten, typescript, or digital format, artwork, photographs, tables, and figures, to be set or reproduced for printing.

copy editor: An editor who prepares a document or other copy for publication, making alterations and corrections to ensure accuracy, consistency, and uniformity. Also called a manuscript editor.

copy fitting: Estimating the space required to display a given amount of text in a specific type size, typeface, and format.

copyright: The law protecting rights to published and unpublished works (see 5.6.3, Copyright: Definition, History, and Current Law).

corrupted: Refers to data that have been damaged in some way.

cover: The front and back pages of a publication. The 4 pages making up the covers in a print publication are often designated covers 1, 2, 3, and 4. Covers 1 and 4 are outside pages, and covers 2 and 3 are inside pages.

cover stock: Paper used for the cover, usually heavier than the paper used for the body of the publication.

Creative Commons (CC): A public copyright license that enables the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work. There are different levels of copyright within the Creative Commons license. Some allow for editing and building on a work, some do not, and some make a distinction as to whether such reuse is for commercial or noncommercial purposes. For more on Creative Commons, see

crop: To trim a photograph, illustration, or other element to fit a desired design or format or to cut off unwanted portions.

crop marks: Lines placed on the sides, top, and bottom of a photograph or illustration that indicate the size or area of the image to be reproduced.

CTP: Computer-to-plate. A printing process that transmits a digital image directly from a computer file to a plate used on a press, eliminating the need for film or negatives.

cursor: An on-screen indicator, such as a blinking line, arrow, hollow square, or other image (usually mouse or keystroke driven), that marks a designated place on the screen and indicates current point of data entry or modification, menu selection, or program function.

database: A collection of stored data from which information can be extracted and organized in various forms and formats.

debug: To trace and correct errors in a computer program.

demand printing, print on demand: A part of the publishing industry that creates short-run, customized print publications quickly and on individual request.

demographic versions: Different versions of an issue of a publication that contains specific inserts or content targeted for specific readers; the inserts are usually advertisements but can also include targeted editorial content.

derivative work: Work based on one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, or abridgment.

descender: The part of such letters as p, q, and y that extends below the main body of the letter or baseline (compare ascender and see x-height).

desktop color separation: A computer file format that separates an EPS (encapsulated PostScript) color file into the 4 color elements: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYB).

desktop publishing: A computer-based publishing system, including page layout software.

digital asset management: A centralized system for archiving, searching, and retrieving digital files and associated metadata.

digitize: To transform a printed character or image into bits or binary digits so that it can be entered into and manipulated in a computer.

display type: Type that differs from the body type of the text of a printed work. Display type is used in titles, headings, and subheadings and is usually larger than the body type.

document: Organized content in written, printed, or digital format.

DOI: Digital object identifier. A means of identifying a physical file or internet file or document. A DOI provides a means of persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related current data in a structured extensible way.

domain: The name that identifies an internet site or server location (eg, Domain names have 2 or more parts separated by dots, which move from specific to general. Domains are also used in the last part of an email address following the @ symbol. The middle-level domain identifies the server or device. The top-level domain identifies the machine name but is recognized often as the type of business (eg, .com, .net, .edu, .org, .mil, .gov) or letters that indicate a country (eg, .ca, .uk, .fr.).

dot: In a halftone, an individual printing element or spot (see also dot gain and dots per inch).

dot gain: A printing defect that causes dots to print larger than they should, resulting in darker tone and color than intended.

dots per inch (DPI): A measure of the resolution of a printed image.

double spread: Printed material (text, tables, illustrations) that extends across 2 pages (left- and right-hand pages); also called a spread or a 2-page spread.

download: The process of transferring digital files from a remote server to a local computer. Can be used as a metric to count the number of times content is accessed. See also views and visitors.

DRM: Digital rights management. A system used to protect the copyrights of data distributed or accessed via the internet or other digital media. A DRM system protects intellectual property by encrypting the data or marking the content with a digital watermark so that the content cannot be distributed.

drop cap, dropped cap: The initial letter of a word (usually beginning a paragraph) set in boldface, larger than the body text.

drop folio: A page number printed at the bottom of the page.

DSL: Digital subscriber line. Provides an extremely high-speed internet connection with the same wires as a regular telephone line.

DTD: Document type definition. Defines the structure of content (ie, journals or books) with a list of elements (ie, title, author, abstract, paragraphs). The DTD is the blueprint for XML documents.

dummy: A layout of a page or an entire journal, to represent the size and appearance after printing.

duotone: A 2-color halftone reproduction from a black-and-white photograph; usually reproduced in black and 1 other color.

DVD: Digital video disk. An optical disk storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality.

editor: (1) Someone who directs a publication or heads an editorial staff and/or decides on the acceptability of a document for publication (eg, editor, editor in chief); manages a publication (eg, managing editor); or prepares a document for publication by altering, adapting, and refining it (eg, manuscript editor, copy editor, author’s editor). (2) In computer terminology, a program used to create text files or make changes to an existing file. Text or full-screen editors allow users to move through a document with direction keys, keystrokes, and a mouse- or command-driven cursor. Line editors allow the user to view the document as a series of numbered lines.

editorial: (1) Of or relating to an editor or editing. (2) A written expression of opinion that may or may not reflect the official position of the publication. (3) Published material that is not promotional (eg, not an advertisement).

e-ISSN: Electronic ISSN, as distinguished from a print ISSN (p-ISSN). See also ISSN.

element: XML term for a component of a journal article. Can be as small as an abbreviation or as large as an abstract or table, or even the entire article. See also attribute.

ellipsis: A series of 3 periods ( . . .  ) used to indicate an omission or that data are not available (see also 8.8, Ellipses).

em: A measurement used to specify to the typesetter the amount of space desired for indention, usually equal to the square body of the type size (eg, a 6-point em is 6 points wide).

em dash: A punctuation mark (—) used to indicate an interruption or break in thought in a sentence; also used after introductory clauses and before closing clauses or designations (see 8.3, Hyphens and Dashes).

embargo: Agreement between journals and news reporters not to report information contained in a manuscript that has been accepted but not yet published until a specified date and time in exchange for advance access to the information.

embedding: Inserting code or links to display multimedia (audio or video) in an article or online content.

emulsification: A condition in offset printing that results from a mixing of the water-based fountain solution and oil-based ink on the press.

emulsion side: The side of a photographic film to which a chemical coating is applied and on which the image is developed.

en: Half an em.

en dash: A punctuation mark (—) (longer than a hyphen and half the length of an em dash) used in hyphenated or compound modifiers (see 8.3, Hyphens and Dashes).

enamel: The surface of shiny, coated paper.

end mark: A symbol, such as a dash (—) or an open square (▫), to indicate the end of an article; often used in news stories.

e-print: A digital version of a research document that is available for download online. See also reprint.

EPS (encapsulated PostScript): EPS is a file extension for a graphics file format used in vector-based images in Adobe Illustrator. Can contain text and images.

e-publication: Electronic publication; a work published in digital format that is accessed via the internet.

expanded type: Type in which the characters are wider than normal (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

export: To convert and transfer data from one application into another application.

extract: A portion of content, called out or quoted for emphasis or to introduce a reader to content. May include the first set portion of an article (eg, the first 50 words). See also abstract, pullout quotes, and call-out.

face: Typeface; style of type (see also font).

fair use: A legal doctrine that permits limited use of copyrighted works without obtaining permission from the rights holders. It usually refers to the use of a copyright work for a limited and transformative purpose, such as to comment on, criticize, or parody (see 5.6, Intellectual Property: Ownership, Access, Rights, and Management).

F&G: Folded and gathered signatures of a publication for final review before publication.

FAQs: Frequently asked questions. Often used by web page designers to help users access and search for information and resolve common problems.

figure: A visual presentation, such as an illustration, photograph, drawing, or graph (see 4.0, Tables, Figures, and Multimedia).

filler: (1) Editorial content used to fill white space created by articles or advertisements not filling an entire page. (2) Chemicals used to fill the spaces between fibers in paper to improve the paper’s opacity.

finish: The surface of paper.

firewall: A security software program or device that blocks or restricts entry into a local area network from the internet.

flush: Lines of type aligned vertically along the left margin (flush left) or the right margin (flush right).

flush and hang: To set the first line flush left on the margin and indent the remaining lines.

flyleaf: Any blank page at the front or back of a book.

folio: A page number placed at the bottom or top of a printed page.

font: The complete assortment of qualities (eg, size, pitch, and spacing) and styles (eg, boldface, italic) of a particular typeface (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

foot, footer, running foot: Standardized text at the bottom of each page of a publication.

footnote: An ancillary piece of information printed at the bottom of a page or below a table.

form, press form: A group of assembled pages (usually 8, 12, 16, or 32 pages), printed at the same time, then folded into consecutively numbered pages.

format: The shape, size, style, margins, type, and design of a publication.

fountain: In offset (lithographic) printing, the part of the press that contains the dampening device and solution (usually water, buffered acid, gum, and alcohol); in nonoffset printing, the part of the press that contains the ink.

FPO: For position only. Refers to low-resolution graphics used in place of high-resolution graphics to show placement of artwork and photographs before printing.

FTP: File transfer protocol. A method for exchanging files between computers on the internet.

function key: A key on a computer keyboard that gives an instruction to the machine or computer, as opposed to the keys for letters, numbers, and punctuation marks; often labeled F (eg, F1, F2).

galley proof: A proof of typeset text copy run 1 column wide before being made into a page.

gatefold: A foldout page.

ghost author: An author who meets all criteria for authorship but is not named in the byline of a publication (see 5.1.2, Authorship Responsibility, Guest and Ghost Authors and Other Contributors).

ghost writer: A person who has written an article or major parts of it but who is not listed in the Acknowledgment section for this contribution.

ghosting: Shadows produced by uneven ink coverage (variations are caused by wide contrasts in the colors or tones being printed).

GIF (.gif): Graphics interchange format. A compressed graphic file normally used for images that do not require many colors (maximum, 256).

glossy: A photograph or line art printed on smooth, shiny paper.

gold open access: Work that is immediately available free of charge at the site of publication to any member of the public.

gradation: A transition of shades between black and white, between one color and another, or between one color and white.

grain direction: The direction of the fibers in a sheet of paper created when the paper is made.

granularity: The level of specificity with which parts of a digital document are identified by a context-sensitive editor.

graphical user interface (GUI): Pronounced [goo-ee]; a computer display format that allows the user to select commands, run programs, and view lists of files and other options by pointing a cursor to icons or menus (text lists) of items on the screen. Ubiquitous now; was invented as an alternative to command-line programming.

graphics: A catch-all term for illustrative material, such as photographs, drawings, and statistical graphs, intended for publication.

grayscale: A range of grays with gradations from white to black. A grayscale image contains various shades of gray.

greeking: (1) A simulation of a reduced-size page used by word-processing applications during the print preview function because it is usually not possible to shrink text size in proportion to the page size. The graphic symbols used to represent text resemble Greek letters; hence the term greeking. Also called lorem ipsum or lipsum. (2) Refers to nonsense text or gray bars inserted in a page to check the layout.

green open access: Work that is made publicly available free of charge in a repository, whether institutional or subject based, perhaps after an embargo period.

gutter: The 2 inner margins of facing pages of a publication, from printed area to binding.

hairline: The thinnest stroke of a character.

hairline rule: A thin rule, usually measuring half of a point.

halftone: A black-and-white continuous-tone artwork, such as a photograph, that has shades of gray (see 4.0, Tables, Figures, and Multimedia).

halftone screen: A grid used in the halftone process to break the image into dots. The fineness of the screen is denoted in terms of lines per inch (eg, 120, 133, 150).

H&J: Hyphenation and justification. The determination of line breaks and the division of words into lines of prescribed measurement.

handwork: Extra work the printer does by hand, such as stripping in type or making part of a page opaque.

hard copy: Printed copy, in contrast to copy stored in digital format.

head, header, running head: Standardized text at the top of each page of a publication.

head margin: Top margin of a page.

homepage: The first screen a user views when connecting to the main domain of a site on the web.

HTML: Hypertext markup language. Codes (tags) used to prepare a file that contains text and graphics for placement on the internet via the web.

http: Hypertext transfer protocol. Used at the beginning of a web address to connect with a website and transfer information and graphics across the web.

https: Hypertext transfer protocol, secure. This protocol is used for performing financial and other types of transactions that require secure transmission of information.

hybrid open access: A publication model in which some of the articles in a journal are open access. This status typically requires the payment of a publication fee (also called an article processing charge or APC) to the publisher.

hyperlink: (v) The nonlinear relating of information, images, and sounds that allows a computer user to jump quickly from one topic, item, or representation to another by clicking on a highlighted word or icon; (n) the highlighted word or icon.

icon: A small graphic image displayed on a computer screen that represents common computer commands (eg, a trash can that represents a command for deleting unwanted text, files, or applications).

image setter: A device that plots an array of dots or pixels onto photosensitive material (film) line by line, until an entire page is created (including text, graphics, and color). The film can be output as a negative or positive with resolutions from 300 to 3000 dots per inch.

impact factor: A measure of the frequency with which the average article in a journal has been cited in a particular year. It helps to evaluate a journal’s relative importance when compared with others in the same field. The impact factor is calculated by dividing the number of current citations to all articles published in the 2 previous years by the total number of countable articles published in those 2 years. See also citation and citation analysis.

import: Using data produced by one application in another, for example, importing data from a spreadsheet and using it to produce a report in a word-processing document.

imposition: The process of arranging pages or press forms of a publication so that the pages will be in sequential order when printed, folded, and bound into a publication; a guide or list of the sequential order of pages.

impression: The transfer of an ink image by pressure from type, plate, or blanket to paper. The speed of a sheet-fed printing press is measured by the number of impressions printed per hour.

imprint: The name of the publishing house or entity that issues a book; the imprint is typically found at the bottom of the title page. It may or may not be the same as the name of the publishing company, and a publishing company may have various imprints.

indent: To set a line of type or paragraph in from the margin or margins (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

initial: A large letter, the first letter of a word used to begin a paragraph, chapter, or section. A “sunken” or “dropped” initial cuts 2 or 3 lines down into the text; a “stickup” initial aligns at the bottom with the first line of text and sticks up into the white space above.

ink fountain: Device on the press that supplies the ink to the inking rollers.

insert: Printed material (a piece of paper or multiple pages) that is positioned between the numbered pages of a publication during the binding process. The insert is usually printed on different paper than that used in the publication; it is often an advertisement.

instant messaging: Text-based messaging that allows the user to communicate with others in real time through the internet.

international paper sizes: The range of standard metric paper sizes as determined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

internet: A global network connecting millions of computers for communications and data transfer purposes.

intranet: A private network with access restricted to specific users (eg, employees of a company or members of an organization).

IP address: Internet Protocol address. A unique identifier for each device that sends or receives data over the internet.

ISBN: International Standard Book Number. A 13-digit number that uniquely identifies books and booklike products published internationally (eg, the ISBN for this manual is 978-0-19-024655-6).

ISO: The International Standards Organization.

ISSN: International Standard Serial Number. An 8-digit number that identifies periodical publications as such, including electronic serials (eg, the ISSN for JAMA in print is 0098-7484, and for JAMA online, 1538-3598).

italic: A typestyle with characters slanting upward and to the right (italic) as opposed to roman type (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

JATS: Journal Article Tag Suite. A standard from NISO (the National Information Standards Organization) that defines a set of XML elements and attributes for tagging scientific literature.

Java: A general programming language.

JPG or JPEG (.jpg): Joint Photographic Experts Group. A JPEG is a compressed graphic file (usually with the file extension .jpg or .jpeg) normally used for images that require many colors (eg, photographs).

JSON: JavaScript Object Notation. An alternative to XML that has the advantages of being simpler, more readable by humans, better suited to data interchange, and object-oriented rather than document-oriented.

justify: To add or delete space between words or letters to make copy align at the left and right margins (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

kerning: Modification of spacing between characters, usually to bring letters closer together, to improve overall appearance.

keyline: Tissue or acetate overlay separating or defining elements and color for line art or halftone artwork.

ladder: Four or more hyphens that appear at the end of consecutive lines; a typographic pattern to be avoided.

landscape: A layout in which the dimensions for width are greater than those for height. Compare portrait, the usual orientation of a page.

LaTeX: A free document preparation system for typesetting, composition, or online display of scientific content.

layout: A drawing that shows a conception of the finished product; includes sizing and positioning of the elements.

leaders: A row of dots or dashes designed to guide the reader’s eye across space or a page.

leading: Pronounced [led-ding]; the spacing between lines of type (also called line spacing); a carryover term from hot metal composition. For example, 9-point type on 11 points of line space allows 2 points of leading below the type (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

legend: Descriptive text that accompanies a figure, photograph, or illustration; also a list (key) that explains symbols on a map or chart (see 4.0, Tables, Figures, and Multimedia). See also caption.

ligature: Two or more letters, such as æ, set as connected (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

line art: Illustration composed of lines and/or lettering, for example, charts, graphs (see 4.0, Tables, Figures, and Multimedia).

lines per inch (LPI): A measure of printing resolution for halftone screens.

listserve: A digital mailing list program that manages email addresses of an online discussion group. The listserve program duplicates the messages sent by individual users and automatically sends them to every user in the group. Listserv is a registered trademark.

live area: The area of a page within the margins.

logo: One or more words or other combinations of letters or designs often used for easy recognition and promotion of company names, trademarks, and so on.

long page: In makeup, a page that runs longer than the live area or margins of the page.

loose-leaf binding: Binding that permits pages to be readily removed and inserted.

lossy: Image compression method that removes minor tonal and/or color variations, causing loss of information (detail) at high compression ratios.

lowercase: Letters that are not capitalized.

macro: A series of automatically executed computer commands activated by a few programmed keystrokes; useful for repetitive tasks.

makeready: The part of the printing process that immediately precedes the actual press run, in which colors, ink coverage, and register are adjusted to produce the desired quality; may also apply to the binding process.

makeup: The arrangement of type lines and illustrations into pages or press forms for review or printing (see also imposition; compare live area).

manuscript: A typed (or occasionally handwritten) composition before it is published.

margin: The section of white space that surrounds typed, composed, or printed copy.

mark up: The process of marking manuscript copy with directions for tagging, style, and composition.

master proof: The set of galley proofs or page proofs that carries all corrections and alterations.

masthead: A listing of editorial, production, and publishing staff; editorial boards; contact information; subscription and advertising information; and important disclaimers.

matte finish: The surface of dull-coated paper.

measure: The length of the line (width of the column) in which type is composed or set, usually measured in picas and points.

megabyte (MB): A unit of computer storage, equal to approximately 1 million bytes.

memory: The part of a computer in which digital information is permanently stored.

MeSH: Medical Subject Headings. The US National Library of Medicine’s controlled-vocabulary thesaurus used for indexing articles in MEDLINE.

metadata: Data about data. For example, a content management system contains information (metadata) about publications (data). Metadata are used in markup languages, such as HTML and XML.

MHz: Abbreviation for megahertz, a unit that measures a computer system’s cycle speed; 1 MHz equals 1 million cycles per second.

mobile device: A small, typically handheld computer, such as a smartphone or a tablet.

modem: Modulator-demodulator. An electronic telecommunication device that converts computer-generated data (digital signals) into analog signals that can be carried over telephone lines.

moiré pattern: An undesirable wavy pattern caused by incorrect screen angles, overprinting halftones, or superimposing 2 geometric patterns.

MOV: QuickTime video file format.

MPEG: Motion Picture Experts Group. As a file format, refers to video and audio compression and transmission.

MSL: Must start left. Indicates that an article must start on a left-hand page.

MSR: Must start right. Indicates that an article must start on a right-hand page.

network: Two or more computers connected to share resources.

NISO: National Information Standards Organization. A US nonprofit standards organization that develops, maintains, and publishes technical standards related to publishing, bibliographic, and library applications.

nonlossy: Image compression without loss of quality.

nonproportional spacing: Spacing that does not allow for the adjustment of space between characters to eliminate extra white space; all letters have the same space, which creates more space around narrow letters and decreases readability.

offset, offset printing: Commonly used term for offset lithographic printing; a printing method in which an image is transferred from an inked plate cylinder to a blanket made of rubber or other synthetic material and then onto a sheet of paper.

opacity: (1) A quality of paper that prevents type or images printed on one side from showing through on the other side. (2) The covering power of ink in printing.

opaque: To block out (on the film negative) those areas that are not to be printed.

open access: A publication model that permits immediate, free access without restrictions (such as a subscription or access fee) and permits use and reuse without restrictions (such as certain copyright and license restrictions). See also gold open access, green open access, and hybrid open access.

optical character recognition (OCR): An OCR input device is capable of scanning a typescript and replicating the typed characters, which creates a digital document that can be edited and searched (as opposed to a scanner, which simply transfers images from paper to a digital file).

orphan: One or 2 short words at the end of a paragraph that fall on a separate line at the bottom of a page or column or a single line of type that starts at the bottom of a page or column.

outline halftone: A portion taken from a halftone that is the shape or modified shape of a subject.

overlay: A hinged flap of paper or transparent plastic covering for a piece of artwork. It may protect the work and/or allow for instructions or corrections to be marked for the printer or camera operator.

overprinting: Printing over an area or page that has already been printed.

overrun: Production of more copies than the number ordered.

paginate: To number, mark, or arrange the pages of a document, manuscript, article, or book.

Pantone Matching System: A color identification system that matches specific shades of approximately 500 colors with numbers and formulas for the corresponding inks, developed by Pantone Inc.

paragraph: A unit of text set off by indention, horizontal space, bullets, or other typographical device.

parse: To analyze files by checking tags (codes) to ensure that they are used correctly.

pasteup: An assembly of the elements of type and artwork as a guide to the printer for makeup.

PDF: Portable document format. A proprietary file format that shows the elements of a printed document as an electronic image that can be viewed, navigated, annotated, or printed.

peer review: The process by which editors ask experts to read, assess, and comment on the suitability of a manuscript and other content for publication (see 6.0, Editorial Assessment and Processing, and 5.11.4, Editorial Responsibility for Peer Review).

peer-reviewed journal: A journal that contains editorial content that is peer reviewed.

perfect binding: Process in which signatures are collated, the gutter edge is cut and ground, adhesive is applied to the signatures, and the cover is applied.

perforate: To punch lines of small holes or slits in a sheet so that it can be torn off with ease.

pica: A unit of measure; 1 pica equals approximately ⅙ inch or 12 points.

pica type: Type that equals 10 characters to the inch.

pitch: In fixed-pitch fonts, pitch refers to the number of characters per inch. Common pitch values are 10 and 12. Proportional-pitch fonts have no pitch value because different characters have different widths, for example, the letter M is wider than the letter I.

pixel: A unit in a digital image; the smallest point of a bit-mapped screen that can be assigned independent color and intensity.

plate: (1) A sheet of metal, plastic, rubber, paperboard, or other material used as a printing surface; the means by which an image area is separated from a nonimage area. (2) A full-page, color book illustration, often printed on paper different from that used for the text.

PMID: PubMed identification number. The unique identifying number assigned to a record when it is entered into PubMed.

PNG: Portable network graphic file format.

pockets: Sections on a binder in which individual signatures are placed and then selected as required for each copy to be bound.

point: The printer’s basic unit of measurement, often used to determine type size; 1 point equals approximately 1/72 inch; 12 points equal 1 pica.

PostScript: A page description language and programming language used primarily in the electronic and desktop publishing areas.

PowerPoint: Microsoft software, used to make slide show presentations. File format extensions are the default .ppt (presentation), .pot (template), and .pps (PowerPoint Show).

ppi: Pixels per inch. Unit of measurement for digital images.

preprint: An article or part of a book printed and distributed or posted online before formal publication and/or review.

preprint server: A database or repository that hosts preprints.

press plates: The plates used to print multiple copies on the press.

press run: The total number of copies of journals, books, or other materials printed.

print order: The number of copies of printed material ordered.

printout: Paper output of a printer or other device that produces normal-reading copy from computer-stored data.

proof: A hard copy of the text and graphic material of a document used to check accuracy of text, composition, positioning, and/or typesetting.

proofreader: One who reads or reviews proofs for errors.

proportional spacing: Spacing that allows for the adjustment of character spacing based on character width and increases readability.

protocol: (1) A system for transmitting data between 2 devices that establishes the type of error checking to be used; data compression structures; how the sending device will indicate that it has finished sending a message; and how the receiving device will indicate that it has received a message. (2) A detailed plan for a scientific study.

PSD: Photoshop (Adobe) file format.

publisher: An entity or person who directs the production, dissemination, and sale of selected information.

PubMed: A searchable database of scientific and biomedical literature compiled by the US National Library of Medicine.

PubMed Central: A free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature.

pullout quotes, pull quote: Sections of text, usually bolder and larger than the original text, used to emphasize content, improve design, or fill white space.

ragged right: Type set with the right-hand margin unjustified (or ragged).

RAM: Random access memory. Temporary computer memory used by a computer to hold data currently being processed or created that are lost when the computer is shut down.

raster: A digitized image that is mapped into a grid of pixels; therefore, the image is resolution dependent. The color of each pixel is defined by a specific number of bits.

raster image processor (RIP): A device that produces a digital bitmap to show an image’s position on a page before printing.

ream: Five hundred sheets of paper.

recto: A right-hand page.

redlining: A software program that shows changes made in a document on screen and on a printed typescript for review by the editor and author. Also called revision marking, track changes, or strikethrough/replace.

register: To print an impression on a sheet in correct relationship to other impressions already printed on the same sheet, for example, to superimpose exactly the various color impressions. When all parts or inks match exactly, they are in register; when they are not exactly aligned, they are out of register.

reprint: A reproduction of an original printing in paper or digital format. See also e-print.

reproduction proof: A high-quality proof for use in photoengraving or offset lithography.

resin-coated paper: Paper used in composition to produce a type proof of the quality needed for photographic reproduction.

resolution: A measurement of the visual quality of an image according to discrimination between distinct elements; the fineness of detail that can be distinguished in an image.

responsive design: Flexible web page creation that permits readability and use of online content regardless of screen size or device.

reverse-out, reverse text, reverse image: Text or image that appears in white surrounded by a solid block of color or black.

river: A streak of white space that runs down through lines of type, breaking up the even appearance of the page; to be avoided.

ROB: Run-of-book. Advertising term meaning a regular page, as opposed to an advertisement insert. Can also refer to placement anywhere space is available in the publication.

roman: A typestyle with upright characters, as opposed to italic (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

RSS: Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary. An XML format for syndicating web content.

run in: To merge a paragraph with the preceding paragraph.

runaround: Type composed or set to fit around an illustration, box, or other design element.

running foot, footer: A line of copy, usually giving publication name, subject, title, date, volume number, and/or authors’ names, that appears at the bottom of consecutive pages.

running head, header: A line of copy, usually giving publication name, subject, title, date, volume number, and/or authors’ names, that appears at the top of consecutive pages.

runover: Material that does not fit in the space allowed (see also live area and long page).

saddle-stitch binding: Process by which signatures, or pages, and covers are assembled by inserting staples into the centerfold.

sans serif: An unadorned typeface; a letter without a short line that projects from the top or bottom of the main stroke of the letter (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display). See also serif.

scaling: Determining the appropriate size of an image and the amount of reduction or enlargement needed for the image to fit in a specific area.

scanner: A device that uses an electronic reader to transform type, characters, and images from a printed page into a digital form.

scholar’s margin: A margin/area to the right or left of the main text area wide enough to make notes. Useful for placing go-with slugs, thumbnails, bylines, and other article elements.

score: To indent or mark paper or cards slightly so they can be folded exactly at certain points.

scribe: Thin strips of nonprinting areas, such as those between figure parts.

search engine: A program that enables users to search for documents on the web.

selective binding: A method of binding in which specific contents of each copy produced are determined by instructions transmitted electronically from a computer. Signatures, or specific groups of pages, are selected to produce a copy for a specific recipient or recipient group.

self-cover: A cover for a publication that is made of the same paper used for the text and printed as part of a larger press form.

serif: An adorned typeface; a short, light line that projects from the top or bottom of a main stroke of a letter (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display). See also sans serif.

server: A computer software package or hardware that provides specific services to other computers.

short page: In makeup, a page that runs shorter than the established live area.

show-through: Inking that can be seen on the opposite side of the paper because of the heaviness of the ink or the thinness of the paper.

sidebar: Text or graphics placed in a box and printed on the right or left side of a page.

signature: (1) A printed sheet composed of several pages that have been folded so that the pages are in consecutive order according to pagination. (2) A line of text that appears at the bottom of an article that lists the names of the author(s).

signature block: A block of text that appears at the bottom of an email message, discussion group, and/or forum post that contains the writer’s name and may also include the writer’s title, company name, location, email address, and personal message; also sometimes used after letters, book reviews, and other small items of copy.

sink: Starting type below the top line of the live area, which leaves an area of white space.

site license: (1) A licensing agreement that permits access and use of digital information at a specific site. (2) A fee paid to a software company to allow multiple users at a site to access or copy a piece of software.

sizing: Adding material to a paper to make it more resistant to moisture.

slug: One or more lines of copy inserted to draw the attention of the reader, for example, direction to see a related article or editorial.

small caps: Capital letters that are smaller than the typical capital letters of a specific typeface, usually the size of the x-height of the font (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

software: Programs and procedures required to enable a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system.

solid: Style of type set with no space between lines.

spacing: Lateral spaces between words, sentences, or columns; also paragraph indentions (see also leading).

spam: Unsolicited junk email sent to numerous recipients.

specifications (specs): Instructions given to the printer that include numbers of copies (press run or print order); paper stock, coating, and size; and color, typography, and design.

spider, web crawler: Software that regularly checks the internet for web pages to feed a search engine.

spine: The backbone of a perfect-bound journal or book. The width of the spine depends on the number and thickness of pages in the publication.

spiral binding: A process of binding a publication with wires or plastic in a spiral form inserted through holes along the binding side.

spot color: One or more extra colors on a page.

spread: Two pages that face each other.

STM: Scientific, technical, and medical fields.

stet: Instruction that marked or crossed-out copy or type is to be retained as it originally appeared.

stock: Type of paper for printing.

straight copy: Material that can be set in type with no handwork or special programming (copy that contains no mathematical equations, tables, and so on).

strapline: The “subtitle” portion of a logo or slogan.

strikethrough: To mark a character or some text for deletion by superimposing a line through the main body of the character(s).

strip: To join film in a unit according to a press imposition before platemaking.

stub: The left-most column of the table, which usually contains the list of topics, variables, or instances to which the values in the table body apply.

style: A set of uniform rules to guide the application of grammar, spelling, typography, composition, and design.

stylesheet: A file or form that defines the layout of a document or web page, including parameters such as margins, fonts, and type sizes.

subhead: A subordinate heading (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

subscript: A number or symbol that prints partly below the baseline, for example, A2 (also called inferior).

subscription: The price for a publication; usually set in annual terms.

superscript: A number or symbol that prints partly above the baseline, for example, A2.

supplement: Material that is deemed not integral to understanding a scientific paper but provided online for deeper exploration. Supplementary material can include, for example, audio or video clips, large tables or figures, lengthy and detailed methods or protocols, or computer code. Supplementary material should be peer reviewed along with the main article but is often not typeset or copyedited in the same way as the main article.

SWK: “Set when known.” Used to indicate information (such as page numbers) that will be inserted later in the production process.

tag: To insert a style or composition code in a computer file or document or the code inserted in a computer file or document.

text: The main body of type in a page, manuscript, article, or book. Also used for electronic files that contain only characters, no formatting or illustrations.

text editor: An application used to create, view, and edit text files.

thin space: A space character that is usually 1/5 or 1/6 of an em in width, inserted with Unicode 2009.

thumbnail: A miniature display of a page or graphic.

TIFF (or TIF): Tagged image file format. A file format that allows bitmapped images to be exchanged among different computer applications.

tints: Various even tone areas of a solid color, usually expressed in percentages.

tip, tip-in: A sheet or several sheets of paper glued or affixed to another before binding a periodical or book.

toner: Imaging material or ink used in photocopiers and computer printers.

trademark: A legally registered word, name, symbol, slogan, or any combination of these, used to identify and distinguish products and services and to indicate the source and marketer of those products and services (see 5.6.16, Intellectual Property: Ownership, Access, Rights, and Management, Trademark).

transparency: (1) A transparent object, such as a photographic slide, that is viewed by shining light through it; color-positive film (traditional/conventional). (2) Effect created by pixels turned “off” or by a mask.

transpose (tr): A proofreading and editing term meaning to reverse the positions of 2 elements (eg, characters, words, sentences, or paragraphs).

trap, trapping: The process of printing one ink on top of another to produce a third color or to avoid thin white spaces between colors.

trim: The edges that are cut off 3 sides—the top (head), bottom (foot), and right (face)—of a publication after binding.

trim line, trim marks: The line or marks indicated on copy to show where the page ends or needs to be cut.

trim size: The final size of the publication.

turnaround time: The period between any 2 events in publishing (eg, between manuscript submission and acceptance, between manuscript scanning and telecommunication to the printer).

type gauge: A type-measurement tool calibrated in picas and points.

typescript: A manuscript output by a computer printer or in typewritten form (see also hard copy).

typesetter: A person, firm, or machine that sets type.

typestyle: An additional style performed on characters set in type, such as bold, italics, shadow, or strikethrough (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

typo: A typographical error in a published work, such as a misspelling or missing letter.

uc/lc: Editing mark used to mean uppercase/lowercase (letters), for example, New York, New York, rather than NEW YORK, NEW YORK.

underrun: Production of fewer printed copies than was ordered.

Unicode: A set of characters and symbols with corresponding codes, able to be used by many software and typesetting programs.

unjustified: A ragged or uneven margin (see 21.0, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display).

upload: To transfer a digital file or data from a local computer to a remote computer.

uppercase: A capital letter.

URL: Uniform resource locator. An address for a document or information available via the internet or web (eg,

vector graphics: The use of geometric primitives, such as points, lines, curves, and polygons, to represent images in computer graphics; resolution-independent graphic images that can be defined by mathematical equations and scaled with no loss of quality.

verso: A left-hand page.

views: A usage metric that counts the number of times an online page is viewed. See also visitors and downloads.

virgule: A forward slanted line (/) used to separate numbers, letters, or other characters (also called forward slash; see 8.4, Forward Slash [Virgule, Solidus]).

visitors: A usage metric that refers to the number of people who view a web page. See also views and downloads.

watermark: (1) An image or set of characters produced by thinning a specific area of paper that is visible when the paper is held up to light; often used to show a company logo. (2) Faint characters imposed over type or images on a page to prevent unauthorized copying or distribution.

web: (1) An offset lithographic printing press. (2) A continuous roll of paper used in A group of web pages and other content usually containing hyperlinks to each other, identified with a domain name, and made available on a web server.

web press: A lithographic press that prints on a continuous roll (web) of paper.

well: A part of a journal, usually the middle pages, in which advertising is not allowed; usually reserved for important scientific and clinical articles in biomedical journals. Regular features, such as news articles, essays, letters, and book reviews, are typically run outside the editorial well, where advertisement interspersion may be allowed.

wf: Abbreviation for wrong font; incorrect or inconsistent type size or typeface.

white space: The area of a page that is free of any text or graphics.

widow: A short line that ends a paragraph and is positioned at the top of a page or column; to be avoided.

Wi-Fi: A wireless local area network that uses radio waves to connect computers and other devices to the internet.

word processor: A general term for a computer program with which text that consists of words and figures can be input, edited, recorded, stored, and printed.

wrong-reading: Produced to read as a mirror image (from left to right) of the original copy; usually refers to film.

WYSIWYG: “What you see is what you get” (pronounced wizzy-wig). What is displayed on the computer screen is essentially how the final product will appear after printing.

x-height: A vertical measurement of a letter, usually equal to the height of a lowercase letter without ascenders or descenders (eg, x).

XML: Extensible Markup Language. Describes content by means of user-defined tags and a DTD to describe the content.

XSL: Extensible Stylesheet Language. A file that describes how to display an XML document of a given type.

zip: (n) A compressed file archive that appears as a single file. (v) To compress files by means of a data compression format that allows files to take up less space on a disk or hard drive.

Principal Author: Brenda Gregoline, ELS


Thanks to the following for their comments on this chapter: Helene M. Cole, MD, formerly of JAMA; Barbara Gastel, MD, MPH, Texas A&M University, College Station; Trevor Lane, MA, DPhil, Edanz Group, Fukuoka, Japan; and Peter J. Olson, ELS, Sheridan Journal Services, Waterbury, Vermont.