Titles - References

AMA Manual of Style - Stacy L. Christiansen, Cheryl Iverson 2020


In titles of articles, books, parts of books, and other material, retain the spelling, abbreviations, and style for numbers used in the original. Note: Numbers that begin a title are spelled out (although exceptions are made for years; see 2.1.2, Titles and Subtitles, Numbers).

3.9.1 English-Language Titles. Journal Articles and Parts of Books.

In English-language titles, capitalize only (1) the first letter of the first word, (2) proper names, (3) names of clinical trials or study groups (eg, Community health worker home visits for adults with uncontrolled asthma: the HomeBASE Trial randomized clinical trial), and (4) abbreviations that are ordinarily capitalized (eg, DNA, EEG, VDRL). Do not enclose article and book chapter titles in quotation marks. However, if a book, book chapter, or article title contains quotation marks in the original, retain them as double quotation marks (unless both double and single quotation marks are used). Books, Government Bulletins, Documents, and Pamphlets.

In English-language titles, italicize the titles of books, government bulletins, documents, and pamphlets and capitalize the first letter of each major word. Do not capitalize articles, prepositions of 3 or fewer letters (as, off, out, per, up, via), coordinating conjunctions (and, or, for, nor, but, yet, so), or the to in infinitives (see 2.1.6, Manuscript Preparation for Submission and Publication, Titles and Subtitles, Capitalization, for exceptions). Do capitalize a 2-letter verb, such as Is and Be.

3.9.2 Non—English-Language Titles. Capitalization.

In non—English-language titles, capitalization does not necessarily follow the same rules as in English-language titles. For example, in German titles (articles and books), all nouns and only nouns are capitalized; typically, in French, Spanish, and Italian book titles, capitalize only the first word, proper names, and abbreviations that are capitalized in English. As with English-language books, government bulletins, documents, and pamphlets, italicize the title. Translation.

Non—English-language titles may be given as they originally appeared, without translation:

1.Rubbert-Roth A. Differenzialdiagnostik der frühen Polyarthritis. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2015;140(15):1125-1130. doi:10.1055/s-0041-103627

2.Ray JC, Kusumoto F, Goldschlager N. A case of P-wave mimicry: cherchez le P. JAMA Intern Med. Published online August 3, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.3342

If non—English-language titles are translated into English, indication of the original language should follow the title:

3.Shimura M. Looking to the future: treatment for retinal vascular disease. Article in Japanese. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2014;118(11):905-906.

If the non—English-language title and the translation are provided, both may be given. In the example below, the article was published in 3 languages, and all translations are provided.

4.Becerra-Posada F, Hennis A, Lutter C. Prevention of childhood obesity through trilateral cooperation. Prevención de la obesidad infantil a través de una cooperación trilateral. Prévention de l’obésité infantile grâce à la coopération trilatérale. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2016;40(2):76-77.

Non—English-language titles should be verified from the original when possible. Consult a dictionary in the appropriate language for accent marks, spelling, and other particulars.

Reference to the primary source is always preferable, but if the non—English-language article is not readily available or not accessible, the translated version is acceptable. The citation should always be to the version consulted.

Such words as tome or Band (volume), fascicolo or Teil (part), Seite (page), Auflage (edition), Abteilung (section or part), Heft (number), Beiheft (supplement), and Lieferung (part or number) should be translated into English.

3.9.3 Names of Organisms.

In all titles, follow the style recommended for capitalization and use of italics in scientific names of organisms (see 10.3.6, Proper Nouns, Organisms, and 14.14, Organisms and Pathogens). Use roman type for genus and species names in book titles.

1.Gerding DN, Meyer T, Lee C, et al. Administration of spores of nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile strain M3 for prevention of recurrent C difficile infection: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;313(17):1719-1727. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.3725

2.Khatri A, Naeger Murphy N, Wiest P, et al. Community-acquired pyelonephritis in pregnancy caused by KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59(8):4375-4378. doi:10.1128/AAC.00553-15

3.American Academy of Pediatrics. Clostridium difficile. In: Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SS, eds. Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. American Academy of Pediatrics; 2015:298-301.

4.Mullany P, Roberts AP, eds. Clostridium difficile: Methods and Protocols. Humana Press; 2010.

3.9.4 Non-English Words and Phrases.

In all titles, follow the guidelines recommended for use of italics or roman in non-English words and phrases (see 12.1.1, Non-English Words, Phrases, and Titles, Use of Italics). For example, even if In Vivo or In Vitro were set italic in a cited title, the JAMA Network journals would set these in roman type.