References to Journal Articles - References

AMA Manual of Style - Stacy L. Christiansen, Cheryl Iverson 2020

References to Journal Articles

3.11.1 Complete Data.

A complete reference to a journal article includes the following:

■Authors’ surnames and initials (the names of all authors should be given unless there are more than 6, in which case the names of the first 3 authors are used, followed by “et al”)

■Title of article and subtitle, if any

■Abbreviated name of journal (see 13.10, Abbreviations, Names of Journals)

■Year (or online publication date [month and day, year] if article is published online first and has yet to appear in a paginated issue or is published in an online-only journal)

■Volume number

■Issue number

■Part or supplement number, when pertinent

■Location (page[s] or e-locator)

■DOI (if supplied)



3.11.2 Names of Journals.

Abbreviate and italicize names of journals. Use initial capital letters. Abbreviate according to the listing in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) NLM Catalog database ( (see 13.10, Names of Journals). Some publishers may have access to reference managers or other databases that provide guidance, journal title abbreviations, and tools for automated validation. For journals or publishers that do not have such resources, journal names for journals not cited in PubMed may be expanded to avoid possible confusion. Another resource is the NLM Fact Sheet “Construction of the National Library of Medicine Title Abbreviations,” which can be found at

Include parenthetical designation of a geographic location if it is included in the PubMed abbreviation, for example, Intern Med (Tokyo, Japan), Pediatr Nephrol (Berlin, Germany). Information enclosed in brackets should be retained without brackets (eg, J Comp Physiol A for J Comp Physiol [A]).

If the name of a journal has changed since the time the reference was published, use the name of the journal at the time of publication. For example, before January 2013, JAMA Internal Medicine was Archives of Internal Medicine. If a citation is to an article published in the older-named journal, do not change the journal name to the newer name (eg, JAMA Intern Med); use the former title (eg, Arch Intern Med). When the name has not changed but the abbreviation used by PubMed has changed (eg, Br Med J to BMJ), use the abbreviation in use by PubMed at the time the reference was published (eg, Br Med J through 1987; BMJ from 1988 forward). This policy will ensure that the online links to the citation will work.

3.11.3 Year, Volume, Issue, Location (Page Numbers), and Dates.

The year, followed by a semicolon; the volume number and the issue number (in parentheses), followed by a colon; the initial page number, a hyphen, and the final page number, followed by a period, are set without spaces. Do not omit digits from inclusive page numbers. The DOI should be included if provided. The DOI should be the final element and is not followed by a period (see 3.15, Electronic References, for more information on DOIs).

1.Quiroz YT, Schultz AP, Chen K, et al. Brain imaging and blood biomarker abnormalities in children with autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: a cross-sectional study. JAMA Neurol. 2015;72(8):912-919. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.1099

2.Sunderam S, Kissin DM, Crawford SB, et al. Assisted reproductive technology surveillance—United States, 2012. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2015;64(suppl 6):1-29.

3.Fanin M, Angelini C. Progress and challenges in diagnosis of dysferlinopathy. Muscle Nerve. Published online August 8, 2016. doi:10.1002/mus.25367

3.11.4 Online Journal Articles, Preprints, and Manuscripts.

A complete reference to a journal article online includes the following:

■Authors’ surnames and initials (the names of all authors should be given unless there are more than 6, in which case the names of the first 3 authors are used, followed by “et al”)

■Title of article and subtitle, if any

■Abbreviated name of journal (see 13.10, Abbreviations, Names of Journals)

■Year (or online publication date [month, day, year] if article is published online first and has yet to appear in a paginated issue or is published in an online-only journal)

■Location (pagination)

■DOI (if a DOI is not available for an online journal article, a URL and accessed date may be used; do not include a URL and accessed date for articles for which a DOI is available)

■Accessed [date]

■URL (verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication)

If including a URL in a reference citation, use the URL that will take the reader directly to the article; do not include a long search string, and also avoid a short, more general URL (eg, one to the publisher’s homepage). Always include “http://” or “https://” before the URL to help ensure proper linking; most sites with “http://” have changed to the more secure “https://” and note that URLs do not always require “www.” The URL is not followed by a period. Verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication.


using a URL from a search result:



URLs with unnecessary characters after a delimiter (ie, hashtag, question mark, virgule):


NISO published The OpenURL Framework for Context-Sensitive Services standard in 2010. OpenURL uses a standardized format to encode descriptions of a website into core components (eg, character encoding, serialization, constraint language, ContextObject format, metadata format, namespace, transport, and community profile). For example, the JAMA Network journals’ URLs are organized using an OpenURL format that permits any article to be easily linked to using its DOI:[journal name]/fullarticle/[DOI]

In reference citations, a DOI is preferable to a URL if one is available; a DOI should be available for most journal articles. No accessed date is required for the DOI because it is a permanent identifier; it is presented as the last item in the reference.

Note: The DOI is provided immediately after “doi:” and is set closed up to it, per convention, and is not followed by a period. For example, in reference 2 below, the DOI would not be presented as because that is a web address and not a DOI. DOIs should not be a part of a web address in reference citations unless the DOI is being used specifically in a URL, as indicated above.

1.van der Kam S, Roll S, Swarthout T, et al. Effect of short-term supplementation with ready-to-use therapeutic food or micronutrients for children after illness for prevention of malnutrition: a randomised controlled trial in Uganda. PLoS Med. 2016;13(2):e1001951. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001951

2.Allison MA, Hurley LP, Markowitz L, et al. Primary care physicians’ perspectives about HPV vaccine. Pediatrics. 2016;137(2):e20152488. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-2488

3.Saeb S, Zhang M, Karr CJ, et al. Mobile phone sensor correlates of depressive symptom severity in daily-life J Med Internet Res. 2015;17(7):e175. doi:10.2196/jmir.4273

4.Frazer K, Callinan JE, McHugh J, et al. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(1):CD005992. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005992.pub3

5.Metcalfe K, Gershman S, Ghadirian P, et al. Contralateral mastectomy and survival after breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations: retrospective analysis. BMJ. 2014;348:g226. doi:10.1136/bmj.g226

In the following example, the citation is to supplemental content (ie, not to the article itself) that appears with the online article.

6.Meeker D, Linder JA, Fox CR, et al. Effect of behavioral interventions on inappropriate antibiotic prescribing among primary care practices: a randomized clinical trial. Supplement 1. Study protocol and changes to analysis plan. JAMA. 2016;315(6):562-570. Accessed June 18, 2019.

An article that appears online before print publication may be edited, tagged, composed, and posted as it will appear in print or in a PDF form but before the print publication (with or without print pagination), or an article may be edited, tagged, composed, and published as part of a specific online issue of the journal. Examples are given below:

7.Tamburini S, Shen N, Chih Wu H, Clemente JC. The microbiome in early life: implications for health outcomes. Nat Med. Published online July 7, 2016. doi:10.1038/nm4142

In the preceding example, the article has not yet been paginated in an issue (which may be published in print, online, or both), and the DOI serves as the unique identifier for the article. If the article is subsequently published in an issue with page numbers, the following citation can be used:

8.Tamburini S, Shen N, Chih Wu H, Clemente JC. The microbiome in early life: implications for health outcomes. Nat Med. 2016;22(7):713-722. doi:10.1038/nm.4142 Preprints and Publication of Unedited Manuscripts.

Preprints are another online method for publication in which a manuscript is uploaded by authors to a public server, without editing or formatting, and typically without peer review.9 A preprint may be a predecessor to publication in a peer-reviewed journal; it is “archived” and citable. Preprint servers include,, MedRxiv, and many others. Preprints were initially used more often in the physical sciences than in medicine, but they are becoming more common in the biological sciences.10 Preprints may have DOIs and can follow this citation format:

1.Bloss CS, Wineinger NE, Peters M, et al. A prospective randomized trial examining health care utilization in individuals using multiple smartphone-enabled biosensors. Preprint. Posted online October 28, 2015. bioRxiv 029983. doi:10.1101/029983

If a preprint is subsequently published in a peer-reviewed journal, the reference citation should include complete data as outlined in this chapter. Note: The version cited should be the version used.

2.Bloss CS, Wineinger NE, Peters M, et al. A prospective randomized trial examining health care utilization in individuals using multiple smartphone-enabled biosensors. PeerJ. 2016;4:e1554. doi:10.7717/peerj.1554

Some publishers post early unedited versions of manuscripts before publication of the final version of an article.

3.Collins-McMillen D, Stevenson EV, Heon Kim J, et al. HCMV utilizes a nontraditional STAT1 activation cascade via signaling through EGFR and integrins to efficiently promote the motility, differentiation, and polarization of infected monocytes. J Virol. Accepted manuscript. Published online October 11, 2017. doi:10.1128/JVI.00622-17

4.Atkins M, Coutinho AD, Nunna S, Gupte-Singh K, Eaddy M. Confirming the timing of phase-based costing in oncology studies: a case example in advanced melanoma. J Med Econ. Accepted manuscript. Published online October 12, 2017. doi:10.1080/13696998.2017.1391818

In the examples below, the authors have published version 1 of their article a week after acceptance in a peer-reviewed journal. The full version of the same article was published in its entirety 4 weeks later. The version of the manuscript that is cited needs to be indicated.

5.Roberts-Galbraith RH, Brubacher JL, Newmark PA. A functional genomics screen in planarians reveals regulators of whole-brain regeneration. eLife. Accepted manuscript, version 1. Published online September 9, 2016. doi:10.7554/eLife.17002

6.Roberts-Galbraith RH, Brubacher JL, Newmark PA. A functional genomics screen in planarians reveals regulators of whole-brain regeneration. eLife. 2016;5:e17002. doi:10.7554/eLife.17002 Repositories.

Papers (manuscripts and articles) in online repositories (eg, [University of California]) may be cited as follows. Manuscripts and Articles in an Institutional Repository.

1.Tseng V. Effect of noise reduction methods in the ICU on sleep quality. UC Irvine. June 8, 2016. Accessed August 17, 2016.

2.Vodyanoy V, Pustovyy O, Globa L, Sorokulova I. Evaluation of a new vasculature by high resolution light microscopy: primo vessel and node. Cornell University Library. August 15, 2016. Accessed August 17, 2016. Data Repository.

When citing data from a repository, cite the data used in addition to the original publication.

3.Cutter AD, Gray JC. Data from: Ephemeral ecological speciation and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient. Evolution. 2016;70(10): 2171-2185. Dryad Digital Repository. Deposited August 17, 2016. doi:10.5061/dryad.734v9

The data package or data set should be cited in the original publication to link the publication and the data. Examples of citations to a data package follow:

4.Francuzik W. Data from: Skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis: 16S gene sequence data. figshare. 2016. doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.4028943

5.Levy I, Maor Y, Mahroum N, et al. Data from: Missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis of HIV in patients that presented with advanced HIV disease: a retrospective cohort study. Dryad Digital Repository. 2016. doi:10.5061/dryad.73c003.11.5

3.11.5 Discontinuous Pagination.

For an article with discontinuous pagination in a single issue, follow the style shown in the examples below:

1.Buster KJ, Stevens EI, Elmets CA. Dermatologic health disparities. Dermatol Clin. 2012;30(1):53-59, viii. doi:10.1016/j.det.2011.08.002

2.Baldwin HE. Systemic therapy for rosacea. Skin Therapy Lett. 2007;12(2):1-5, 9.

3.11.6 Journals Without Volume or Issue Numbers.

In references to journals that have no volume or issue numbers, use the issue date, as shown in example 1 below. If there is an issue number but no volume number, use the style shown in example 2 below.

1.Flyvholm MA, Susitaival P, Meding B, et al. Nordic occupational skin questionnaire—NOSQ-2002: Nordic questionnaire for surveying work-related skin diseases on hands and forearms and relevant exposure. TemaNord. April 2002:518.

2.Johnson CL, Dohrmann SM, Kerckove VD, et al. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: National Youth Fitness Survey estimation procedures, 2012. Vital Health Stat 2. 2014;(168):1-25.

3.11.7 Parts of an Issue.

If an issue has 2 or more parts, the part cited should be indicated in accordance with the following example:

1.MacSweeney M, Cardin V. What is the function of auditory cortex without auditory input? Brain. 2015;138(pt 9):2468-2470. doi:10.1093/brain/awv197

3.11.8 Special Issue or Theme Issue.

The JAMA Network journals refer to issues published to commemorate an event or to bring together articles on the same subject as theme issues. References to the complete contents of a special or theme issue of a journal should be cited as follows:

1.Zylke JW, ed. Child health. JAMA. 2015;313(15, theme issue):1489-1584.

2.2015 AHNS. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;141(12, theme issue):1039-1148.

Special or theme issues may also be published as supplements (see 3.11.9, References, References to Journal Articles, Supplements, for the recommended style for these).

3.11.9 Journal Supplements.

The following example illustrates the basic format for styling references to journal supplements:

1.Johnson EM, Wortman MJ, Lundberg PS, Daniel DC. Orderly steps in progression of jc virus to virulence in the brain. Brain Disord Ther. 2015;4(suppl 2):2003. doi:10.4172/2168-975X.S2-003

Often, the supplement is numbered and there is no issue number.

2.Cao Y, Steffey S, He J, et al. Medical image retrieval: a multimodal approach. Cancer Inform. 2015;13(suppl 3):125-136. doi:10.4137/CIN.S14053

If the supplement is numbered and there is an issue number, use the form below:

3.Viriyasiripong S. Laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy, surgical technique and result: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai. 2015;98(11)(suppl 10):S154-S157.

When numbered supplements have several parts, denoted by “pt 1” or by letters, each supplement having independent pagination, use the following form:

4.Kleinman JT, Mlynash M, Zaharchuk G, et al. Yield of CT perfusion for the evaluation of transient ischaemic attack. Int J Stroke. 2015;10(suppl A100):25-29. doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2012.00941.x

5.Kurowski BG, Pomerantz WJ, Schaiper C, Ho M, Gittelman MA. Impact of preseason concussion education on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of high school athletes. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;79(3)(suppl 1):S21-S28. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000675

Note: It is common for page numbers in supplements to include letters as well as numbers (eg, S21-S28 in example 5 above). Also, example 4 has no issue number.

Supplemental material published as an entire issue (eg, all the abstracts presented at a meeting) may be cited as follows:

6.Abstracts of the 51st Workshop for Pediatric Research. Mol Cell Pediatr. 2015;2(suppl 1):A1-A30. Accessed October 14, 2016.

In the example below, the entire supplement has a DOI.

7.Abstracts of the 50th Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research, June 10-13, 2015, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Eur Surg Res. 2015;55(suppl 1):1-167. doi:10.1159/000381839

See, References, Special Materials, Meeting Presentations and Other Unpublished Material, Items Presented at a Meeting.

3.11.10 Abstracts From Another Source.

Several types of published abstracts may be cited: (1) an abstract of a complete article republished from another publication (perhaps accompanied by a commentary), (2) an abstract of an online-only article published in the print version of a journal to alert print-only readers, (3) a translated abstract published with full-text article in a different language, and (4) an abstract published in the society proceedings or other collection of a journal. (For examples of abstracts presented at meetings, published or unpublished, see 3.13.3, Special Materials, Serial Publications, and 3.13.9, Special Materials, Meeting Presentations and Other Unpublished Material.)

Ideally, a reference to any of these types of abstracts should be permitted only when the original article is not readily available (eg, non—English-language articles or papers presented at meetings but not yet published). If an abstract is published in the society proceedings section of a journal, the name of the meeting during which the abstract was presented need not be included, but see example 4 below if this information is included.

Abstract of a complete article republished from another publication:

1.Yang EL, Macy TM, Wang KH, et al. Economic and demographic characteristics of cerumen extraction claims to Medicare. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;142(2):157-161. Abstract republished in: JAMA. 2016;315(19):2128.

Abstract of an online-only article published in the print version of a journal:

2.Kelly MS, Benjamin DK, Puopolo KM, et al. Potential cytomegalovirus infection and the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(12):e153785. Abstract republished in: JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(12):1095.

Translated abstract with full-text article in a different language:

3.Siqueira MM, Araujo CA, Roza BA, Schirmer J. Indicadores de eficiência no processo de doação e transplante de órgãos: revisão sistemática da literatura. Abstract in English. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2016;40(2):90-97.

Abstract of a paper published in the society proceedings of a journal:

4.Richardson J, Hendrickse C, Gao-Smith F, Thickett D. Characterisation of systemic neutrophil function in patients undergoing colorectal cancer resection. Eur Surg Res. 2015;55(suppl 1):4. European Society for Surgical Research abstract OP-4.

Note: In example 4, the abstract number is also provided.

3.11.11 Special Department, Feature, or Column of a Journal.

When reference is made to material from a special department, feature, or column of a journal, the department could be identified only in the following cases.

The cited material has no byline or signature. Note: This is preferable to citing Anonymous, unless “Anonymous” or something similar was actually used (see 2.2, Author Bylines and End-of-Text Signatures).

1.A plan to protect the world—and save WHO. Editorial. Lancet. 2015;386(9989):103. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61225-9

The column or department name might help the reader identify the nature of the article and this is not apparent from the title itself. Note: In these cases, the inclusion of the department or column name is optional and should be used as needed, at the editor’s discretion.

2.Harris JC. Cunningham Dax Collection. Art and Images in Psychiatry. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(12):1316-1317. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2771

3.Ross JS, Krumholz HN. Open access platforms for sharing clinical trial data. Letter. JAMA. 2016;316(6):666. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.8794

4.O’Rourke K, VanderZanden A, Shepard D, Leach-Kemon K; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Cardiovascular disease worldwide, 1990-2013. JAMA Infographic. JAMA. 2015;314(18):1905. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.14994

5.Assessing and referring complications following bariatric surgery. BMJ Infographic. Accessed June 18, 2019.

Identification of other special departments, features, or columns may not require additional notation (eg, book or journal reviews) because their identity may be apparent from the citation itself:

6.Bevans SE, Larrabee WF Jr, reviewers. Review of: Baker SR. Local Flaps in Facial Reconstruction. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2015;17(2):151. doi:10.1001/jamafacial.2014.1440

3.11.12 Discussants.

If a reference citation in the text names a discussant specifically rather than the author(s), eg, “as noted by Easter,1” the following form is used:

1.Easter DW. In discussion of: Farley DR, Greenlee SM, Larson DR, Harrington JR. Double-blind, prospective, randomized study of warmed humidified carbon dioxide insufflation vs standard carbon dioxide for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Arch Surg. 2004;139(7):739-744.

Note: This convention is not used as widely now. Separately indexed opinion pieces, such as commentaries, editorials, or editor’s notes, are more common.

3.11.13 Online Comments.

Some journals allow readers to post an online response to articles (eg, BMJ’s Rapid Responses, In the first 2 examples, “Re:” precedes the title of the original article.

1.Cooke PA. Re: Primary care management of patients after weight loss surgery. Rapid Response. BMJ. March 15, 2016. Accessed June 18, 2019.

2.Zinsstag J. Re: The prevention and management of rabies. Rapid Response. BMJ. February 10, 2016. Accessed June 18, 2019.

These examples provide a unique title for the comment itself:

3.Donzelli A. A reform of rewarding systems to fight against disease mongering. PLoS Med. March 31, 2009. Accessed February 25, 2016.

4.Magee M. Incrementalism and voluntary standards are not enough. JAMA. March 8, 2019. Accessed March 10, 2019.

In addition, nonjournal data repositiories, blogs, and websites also allow readers to post comments on articles.

5.Curry S. Re: How to manipulate a citation histogram. Comment online. Scholarly Kitchen blog. August 8, 2016. Accessed August 15, 2016.

3.11.14 Corrections.

If the reference citation is to an article with a published correction, provide both the information about the article and the information about the published correction, if available, as follows:

1.Gale CR, Batty GD, Osborn DPJ, Tynelius P, Whitley E, Rasmussen F. Association of mental disorders in early adulthood and later psychiatric hospital admissions and mortality in a cohort study of more than 1 million men. JAMA Psychiatry. 2012;69(8):823-831. Published correction appears in JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(12):1259.

A reference citation to the correction notice would appear as follows:

2.Errors in text and tables 2 and 3. Correction. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(12):1259. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0077

3.11.15 Retractions and Expressions of Concern.

If the reference citation is to an article that has since been retracted or retracted and replaced, to an article for which there is an expression of concern, or to the retraction notice itself, use the appropriate example below. The ICMJE Recommendations note, “Ideally, the authors of the retraction should be the same as those of the article, but if they are unwilling or unable the editor may under certain circumstances accept retractions by other responsible persons, or the editor may be the sole author of the retraction or expression of concern.”5(p8) (see 5.4.4, Editorial Policy and Procedures for Detecting and Handling Allegations of Scientific Misconduct).

1.Notice of retraction: Ahimastos AA, et al. Effect of perindopril on large artery stiffness and aortic root diameter in patients with Marfan syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007;298(13):1539-1547. JAMA. 2015;314(24):2692-2693. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.16678

2.Lopes AC, Greenberg BD, Pereira CAB, Norén G, Miguel EC. Notice of retraction and replacement: Lopes et al. Gamma ventral capsulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(9):1066-1076. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(12):1258. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0673

3.Expression of concern: Low concentration of interleukin-1β induces FLICE-inhibitory protein-mediated β-cell proliferation in human pancreatic islets. Diabetes. 2006;55:2713-2722. Diabetes. 2016;65(8):2462. doi:10.2337/db16-ec08a

Citing the retracted article:

4.Ahimastos AA, Aggarwal A, D’Orsa KM, et al. Effect of perindopril on large artery stiffness and aortic root diameter in patients with Marfan syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007;298(13):1539-1547. Retracted in: JAMA. 2015;314(24):2692-2693. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.16678

5.Lopes AC, Greenberg BD, Canteras MM, et al. Gamma ventral capsulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(9):1066-1076. Retracted and replaced in: JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(12):1258. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0673

6.Schopfer DW, Takemoto S, Allsup K, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation use among veterans with ischemic heart disease. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(10):1687-1689. Retracted and replaced in: JAMA Intern Med. October 10, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.5831

In example 6, a shortened version of the reference to the retracted and replaced article is used (date and DOI only); this style may be necessary for articles that have not been published and paginated in an issue in journals with online first and print publication.

Note: DOIs do not follow the citation of the retracted article.

3.11.16 Duplicate Publication.

The following form is suggested for citation of a notice of duplicate publication (see 5.3, Ethical and Legal Considerations, Duplicate Publication and Submission).

1.Shariat SF, Roehrborn CG, Lamb DJ, Slawin KM. Notice of duplicate publication: Potentially harmful effect of a testosterone dietary supplement on prostate cancer growth and metastasis. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(2):235-236. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(18):2046-2047. doi:10.1001/archinte.168.18.2046-b