References to Books
3.12.1 Complete Data.
A complete reference to a book includes the following:
■Chapter authors’ surnames and initials (the names of all authors should be given unless there are more than 6, in which case the names of the first 3 authors are used, followed by “et al”)
■Chapter title (when cited)
■Book authors’ and/or editors’ (and translator, if any) surnames and initials (the names of all authors should be given unless there are more than 6, in which case the names of the first 3 authors are used, followed by “et al”)
■Title of book and subtitle, if any
■Volume number and volume title, when there is more than 1 volume
■Edition number (do not indicate first edition)
■Name of publisher
■Year of copyright
■Page numbers, when specific pages are cited
With this edition of the manual, we no longer recommend including the publisher’s location for several reasons: many publishers have more than 1 location and determining which location is appropriate to include can be challenging; location can be difficult to determine if looking at an online resource (eg, an e-book); and publisher location is not a necessary piece of information in retrieving the reference.
3.12.2 References to an Entire Book.
When referring to an entire book, rather than pages or a specific section, use the following format (see 3.7, References, Authors).
1.Etzel RA, Balk SJ, eds. Pediatric Environmental Health. American Academy of Pediatrics; 2011.
2.Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks W, et al, eds. Middleton’s Allergy: Principles and Practice. 8th ed. Saunders; 2014.
3.Sacks O. Hallucinations. Alfred A Knopf; 2012.
4.Patterson JW. Weedon’s Skin Pathology. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone; 2016.
5.Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI). The Australian Immunisation Handbook. 10th ed. Australian Government Dept of Health; 2015.
The following 2 examples are also available as e-books online:
6.World Health Organization. Health Worker Roles in Providing Safe Abortion Care and Post-abortion Contraception. World Health Organization; 2015. Accessed August 15, 2016. https://srhr.org/safeabortion/
7.Guyatt G, Rennie D, Meade MO, Cook DJ. Users’ Guides to the Medical Literature: A Manual for Evidence-Based Clinical Practice. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. Accessed August 15, 2016. https://jamaevidence.mhmedical.com/book.aspx?bookID=847
3.12.3 References to Monographs.
References to monographs (typically a detailed, scholarly work on a single subject written by a single author who is a specialist on that subject; per Webster’s, “a learned treatise on a small area of knowledge”11) should be styled the same as references to books.
1.de Pina-Cabral J. World: An Anthropological Examination. Malinowski Monographs. Hau Books; 2016.
3.12.4 References to a Chapter in a Book.
When citing a chapter of a book, capitalize as for a journal article title (see 184.108.40.206, English-Language Titles, Journal Articles and Parts of Books); do not use quotation marks. Inclusive page numbers of the chapter should be given (see 3.12.10, Page Numbers or Chapter Number).
1.Prince M, Glozier N, Sousa R, Dewey M. Measuring disability across physical, mental, and cognitive disorders. In: Regier DA, Narrow WE, Kuhl EA, Kupfer DJ, eds. The Conceptual Evolution of DSM-5. American Psychiatric Publishing Inc; 2011:189-227.
2.Boushey CJ. Application of research paradigms to nutrition practice. In: Coulston AM, Boushey CJ, Ferruzzi MG, eds. Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease. 3rd ed. Academic Press; 2013:99-105.
Note that in example 2 above, the author of the chapter is also an editor of the book. In cases like this, names are given in both places: as authors of the chapter and as editors of the book. The same policy would apply if the authors of a particular chapter and the editors of the book were identical.
3.12.5 Editors and Translators.
Names of editors, translators, translator-editors, or executive, consulting, and section editors are given as follows:
1.Plato. The Laws. Taylor EA, trans-ed. JM Dent & Sons Ltd; 1934:104-105.
[Plato is the author; Taylor is the translator-editor.]
2.Blumenthal DK, Garrison JC. Pharmacodynamics: molecular mechanisms of drug actions. In: Bunton LL, ed. Chabner BA, Knollmann BC, associate eds. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 12th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2011:41-72.
[Blumenthal and Garrison are the authors of a chapter in a book edited by Bunton, for which Chabner and Knollmann were the associate editors.]
In the following 3 examples, no book authors are named (in example 5, the chapter author is given). Each book has an editor or editors and is part of a series. Note: The name of the series, if any, is given in the final field. If the book has a number within a series, the number is also given in the final field.
3.Eagle KA, Baliga RR, Isselbacher EM, Nienaber CA, eds. Aortic Dissection and Related Syndromes. Springer; 2007. Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine; vol 260.
4.Kaufman HL, Mehnert JM, eds. Melanoma. Springer; 2016. Rosen ST, ed. Cancer Treatment and Research; vol 167.
5.Kleinman K. Darwin and Spenser on the origin of music: is music the food of love? In: Altenmüller E, Finger S, Boller F, eds. Music, Neurology, and Neuroscience: Evolution, the Musical Brain, Medical Conditions, and Therapies. Elsevier; 2015:3-15. Progress in Brain Research; vol 217.
3.12.6 Volume Number.
Use arabic numerals for volume numbers if the work cited includes more than 1 volume, even if the publisher used roman numerals.
If the volumes have no separate titles, merely numbers, the number should be given after the general title.
1.Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. Vol 2. McGraw-Hill Professional; 2015.
If the volumes have separate titles, the title of the volume referred to should be given first, with the title of the overall series of which the volume is a part given in the final field, along with the name of the general editor and the volume number, if applicable.
2.Christiansen H, Christiansen NM, eds. Progressive Neuroblastoma: Innovation and Novel Therapeutic Strategies. Karger; 2015. Kiess W, ed. Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine; vol 20.
In example 2 above, Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine is the name of the entire series; Progressive Neuroblastoma: Innovation and Novel Therapeutic Strategies is the 20th volume.
When a book title includes a volume number or other identifying number, use the title as it was published. Note: The volume number does not need to be repeated in its customary place after the year if it is included in the book’s title.
3.Field Manual 4—02.17: Preventive Medicine Services. US Dept of the Army; 2000.
4.Riley-Tillman TC, Burns MK, Gibbons K. RTI Applications, Volume 2: Assessment, Analysis, and Decision Making. Guilford Press; 2013.
3.12.7 Edition Number.
Use arabic numerals to indicate an edition, even if the publisher has used roman numerals, but do not indicate a first edition. If a subsequent edition is cited, the number should be given. Abbreviate “New revised edition” as “New rev ed,” “Revised edition” as “Rev ed,” “American edition” as “American ed,” and “British edition” as “British ed.”
1.Braverman LE, Cooper D, eds. Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text. 10th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012.
2.Lareau A. Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life, With an Update a Decade Later. 2nd ed. University of California Press; 2011.
3.Katz JR, Carter CJ, Lyman Kravits S, Bishop J, Block J. Keys to Nursing Success. 3rd rev ed. Prentice Hall; 2009.
4.The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers. 17th ed. University of Chicago Press; 2017. Accessed January 25, 2019. https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/
5.Smeltzer SC, Bare BG, Hinkle JL, Cheever KH. Brunner & Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. American ed. Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.
The full name of the publisher (publisher’s imprint, as shown on the title page) should be given, abbreviated in accordance with the style used by the JAMA Network journals (see 13.7, Commercial Firms) but without any punctuation. Even if the name of a publishing firm has changed, use the name that was given on the published work.
The following are examples of the format for a book with a joint imprint:
1.Green L. W. Barns-Graham: A Studio Life. 2nd ed. Lund Humphries/Ashgate Publishing; 2011.
2.Taylor K. Philip Evergood: Never Separate From the Heart. Center Gallery, Bucknell University Press/Associated University Presses; 1987.
3.Style Manual Committee, Council of Science Editors. Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 8th ed. University of Chicago Press/Council of Science Editors; 2014.
Consult Books in Print (https://www.booksinprint.com/), WorldCat (https://www.worldcat.org/), or the Library of Congress catalog (https://catalog.loc.gov/) to verify names of publishers.
If there is no publisher’s name available, use “Publisher unknown” in the place of the publisher’s location and name.
3.12.9 Year of Publication.
If the book has been published but there is no year of publication available, use “date unknown” in the place of the year. Use the full year (eg, 2016), not an abbreviated form (eg, not 16 or ’16).
1.American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
3.12.10 Page Numbers or Chapter Number.
Use arabic numerals, unless the pages referred to use roman pagination (eg, the preliminary pages of a book).
1.Rudolph KD, Flynn M. Depression in adolescents. In: Gottlib IH, Hammen CL, eds. Handbook of Depression. 3rd ed. Guilford Press; 2014:391-409.
2.Harper RD. Preface. In: The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. University of Chicago Press; 2010:xi-xiii.
If a book uses separate pagination within each chapter, follow the style used in the book. Notice that in the example below, because the page numbers contain hyphens, an en dash is used to separate them rather than the usual hyphen.
3.Weil AA, Hyle EP, Basgoz N. Infectious diseases. In: Sabatine MS, ed. Pocket Medicine. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:6-1—6-22.
Inclusive page numbers are preferred. The chapter number may be used instead if the author does not provide the inclusive page numbers, even after being queried, or if the page numbers are not available because of the format used (eg, audiobook).
4.Kwon DS, Walker BD. Immunology of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In: Paul WE, ed. Fundamental Immunology. 7th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012:chap 42.
3.12.11 Electronic Books, Books Online, Audiobooks, and Books on Tape or CD.
The basic format for references to books published via media other than print is as follows:
■Authors’ surnames and initials (the names of all authors should be given unless there are more than 6, in which case the names of the first 3 authors are used, followed by “et al”) or name of the group if the author is a group
■Chapter title (Note: If the reference is to the entire book, the information about chapter title is not included.)
■Edition number (if it is the second edition or higher; mention of first edition is not necessary; eg, 2nd ed)
■Copyright year or publication date
■Chapter number (or inclusive pages if available)
■URL (verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication)
1.Style Manual Committee, Council of Science Editors. Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 8th ed. University of Chicago Press/Council of Science Editors; 2014. Accessed June 18, 2019. https://www.scientificstyleandformat.org
2.Sudarsky L. Gait and balance disorders. In: Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Longo DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. McGraw-Hill; 2015:chap 32. Accessed February 10, 2016. http://www.harrisonsim.com/index.php
3.Patrias K, Wendling DL, ed. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 2nd ed. National Library of Medicine; 2007-. Updated October 2, 2015. Accessed August 11, 2016. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine
Titles of books on CD-ROM follow the capitalization style of print book titles and are italicized. Note: If the title of the book (eg, Cecil Textbook of Medicine on CD-ROM) indicates the medium, no mention of the medium is necessary.
4.Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 5th ed. CD-ROM. Garland Science; 2007.
5.O’Neill LAJ. The innate immune system. In: Paul WE, ed. Fundamental Immunology. 7th ed. CD-ROM. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012: chap 15.
Citations for other book versions, including for e-readers and audiobooks or books on CD, can take the following formats:
6.Skloot R. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Kindle e-Book. Random House; 2010:chap 31.
7.Skloot R. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Audiobook. Random House Audio; 2010:chap 31.
8.Skloot R. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Audio CD. Random House Audio; 2010:chap 31.
Note: The version used is the version that should be cited.