AMA Manual of Style - Stacy L. Christiansen, Cheryl Iverson 2020
Many of the special materials covered in this section may also be accessed (and cited) in an online format. To see examples of these citation formats, see 3.15, Electronic References. The version used (print or online) is the version that should be cited.
3.13.1 News Publications.
References to news publications, including newspapers (print and online) and blogs, should include the following, in the order indicated: (1) name of author (if given), (2) title of article, (3) name of newspaper, (4) date of newspaper or date of publication online, (5) section (if applicable), (6) page number (if applicable), (7) online accessed date (if applicable), and (8) website address (if applicable). Note: Newspaper names are not abbreviated. If a city name is not part of the newspaper name, it may be added to the official name for clarity, as with Minneapolis in example 1.
1.Tevlin J. Minneapolis street doctor dispenses care with a dose of dignity. Minneapolis Star Tribune. January 23, 2016. Accessed January 28, 2016. http://www.startribune.com/minneapolis-street-doctor-dispenses-care-with-a-dose-of-dignity/366313741/
2.Schencker L. Peanut allergy relief ? Chicago Tribune. September 22, 2019:C1.
3.Ubelacker S. CAMH to “wind down” controversial gender identity clinic services. Globe and Mail. December 15, 2015. Accessed January 28, 2016. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/toronto/camh-to-wind-down-controversial-gender-identity-clinic-services/article27766580/
4.Liptak A. Yale finds error in legal stylebook: contrary to claim, Harvard didn’t create it. New York Times. December 8, 2015:A24.
5.Narula SK. WHO has only declared three public health emergencies in its history—Zika virus just became the fourth. Quartz blog. February 1, 2016. Accessed August 16, 2016. http://qz.com/607331
6.Guber S. When music is the best medicine. New York Times. September 26, 2019. Accessed September 30, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/26/well/live/music-therapy-cancer.html
Note: In the previous 2 examples, the web addresses provided by the blogs were shortened versions. Shortened web addresses may be used in reference citations as long as the shortened link functions properly and directs readers to the correct web page.
3.13.2 Government or Agency Reports.
References to reports published by departments or agencies of a government should include the following information, in the order indicated: (1) name of author (if given); (2) title of bulletin; (3) name of issuing bureau, agency, department, or other governmental division (note that in this position, Department should be abbreviated Dept; also note that if the US Government Printing Office is supplied as the publisher, it would be preferable to obtain the name of the issuing bureau, agency, or department); (4) date of publication; (5) page numbers (if specified); (6) publication number (if any); (7) series number (if given); (8) online accessed date (if applicable); and (9) web address (if applicable).
1.Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE, Miech RA. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2014: College Students and Adults Ages 19-55. Vol 2. National Institute on Drug Abuse, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2014.
2.Health, United States, 2014: With Special Feature on Adults Aged 55-64. National Center for Health Statistics; 2015.
3.Sondik EJ. Foreword. In: Healthy People 2010: Final Review. National Center for Health Statistics; 2012:iii.
4.Grall T. Census 2010 Report No. P60-255: Custodial Mothers and Fathers and Their Child Support: 2013. US Census Bureau; 2016.
5.National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Questions and Answers About Sprains and Strains. National Institutes of Health; 2015. NIH publication 15-5328. Accessed January 28, 2016. http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sprains_Strains/default.asp
6.Government of Nepal. Central Bureau of Statistics. Statistical Year Book of Nepal—2013. Central Bureau of Statistics; 2013.
7.World Health Organization. World Health Report 2013: Research for Universal Health Coverage. World Health Organization; 2013.
8.United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Women on the Run: First-Hand Accounts of Refugees Fleeing El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. UNHCR: UN Refugee Agency; 2015. Accessed August 16, 2016. http://www.unhcr.org/5630f24c6.pdf
9.National Institute of Public Health. Importance of Blood Donation: Requirements and Restrictions. Published in Spanish. National Institute of Public Health of Mexico; 2015.
3.13.3 Serial Publications.
If a monograph or report is part of a series, include the name of the series and, if applicable, the number of the publication.
1.Ministry of Health. National AIDS Control Programme. Ministry of Health, United Republic of Tanzania; 2013. HIV/AIDS/STI Surveillance Report 23.
2.Chinnadurai S, Snyder K, Sathe NA, et al. Diagnosis and Management of Infantile Hemangioma: Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 168. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2016. AHRQ publication 16-EHC002-EF.
3.US Department of Commerce. Population Division: Income, Poverty and Health Insurance in the United States, 2012. US Bureau of the Census; 2012. Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Accessed January 28, 2016. https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/incpovhlth/2012/index.html
3.13.4 Theses and Dissertations.
Titles of theses and dissertations are given in italics. References to theses should include the name of the university (or other institution) and year of completion of the thesis. If the thesis has been published, it should be treated as any other book reference (see 3.12.1, References to Books, Complete Data).
1.Maiti N. Association Between Bullying Behaviors, Health Characteristics, and Injuries Among Adolescents in the United States. Dissertation. Palo Alto University; 2010.
2.Ghanbari S. Integration of the Arts in STEM: A Collective Case Study of Two Interdisciplinary University Programs. Dissertation. University of California; 2014. Accessed October 14, 2016. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/9wp9x8sj
3.Neel ST. A Cost-Minimization and Policy Analysis Comparing Immediate Sequential Cataract Surgery and Delayed Sequential Cataract Surgery From Payer, Patient, Physician, and Surgical Facility Perspectives in the United States. Master’s thesis. London School of Economics and Political Science; 2013.
3.13.5 Special Collections.
References to material available only in special collections of a library, as in this example of a monograph written in 1757, take this form:
1.Hunter J. An account of the dissection of morbid bodies: a monograph or lecture. 1757;No. 32:30-32. Located at: Library of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, England.
3.13.6 Package Inserts.
Package inserts, patient information, and prescribing information (the material about the use and effects of the product) may be cited as follows:
1.Zithromax. Prescribing information. Pfizer; 2017. Accessed June 23, 2019. https://www.pfizermedicalinformation.com/en-us/zithromax
2.Azilect. Package insert. Teva Pharmaceuticals Inc; 2014.
Patent citations take the following form. Example 1 is for a patent that has been issued, example 2 is for a patent application, and example 3 is for a European patent. See the US Patent and Trademark Office website (https://www.uspto.gov/) or the European Patent Office website (https://www.epo.org) for further details.
1.Hu D, Fong K, Pinto M, et al, inventors; Spiracur Inc, assignee. Reduced pressure therapy of the sacral region. US patent 8,361,043. January 29, 2013.
2.Gustafsson J, inventor; Cochlear Ltd, assignee. Bone conduction magnetic retention system. US patent application 20,160,037,273. February 4, 2016.
3.Menke A, Binder EB, Holsboer F, inventors; Max Planck Gesellschaft, assignee. Means and methods for diagnosing predisposition for treatment of emergent suicidal ideation. European patent EP2166112 (B1). May 6, 2013.
Note: In examples 1 and 2 above, the commas are retained; do not use thin spaces in the patent numbers (see 18.1.1, Use of Numerals, Numbers of 4 or More Digits to Either Side of the Decimal Point).
3.13.8 Conference Proceedings Online, Webinars, and Other Presentations.
These are treated much the same as a “presented at” reference (see 3.13.9, Special Materials, Meeting Presentations and Other Unpublished Material), with the addition of the accessed date and the URL.
1.Morales M, Zhou X. Health practices of immigrant women: indigenous knowledge in an urban environment. Paper presented at: 78th Association for Information Science and Technology Annual Meeting; November 6-10, 2015; St Louis, MO. Accessed March 15, 2016. https://www.asist.org/files/meetings/am15/proceedings/openpage15.html
2.Botkin J, Menikoff J. Opening remarks presented at: Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections Meeting; December 4, 2015; Rockville, MD. http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/sachrp/mtgings/2015%20Dec%20Mtg/december3-4,2015sachrpmeeting.html. Accessed March 15, 2016. Videocast available at: https://videocast.nih.gov/
The presentation in example 2 did not have a title; hence, the “title” field and the “presented at” field were combined. In addition, a webcast of the meeting is available for the presentation in example 2, and that information is also included in the reference. See example 3 below for how to cite a videocast.
3.Labor, Health and Human Services Subcommittee Hearing. National Institutes of Health: Investing in a Healthier Future. October 7, 2015. Accessed March 15, 2016. Videocast available at: http://www.appropriations.senate.gov/hearings/labor-hhs-subcommittee-hearing-national-institutes-of-health-investing-in-a-healthier-future
A transcript from a teleconference is cited as follows:
4.Volkow N, Botticelli M, Johnston LD, Miech RA. Monitoring the Future: Teleconference 2015. December 16, 2015. Accessed March 15, 2016. Transcript available at: https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/podcasts/2015/12/monitoring-future-teleconference-2015#content-area
A webinar is cited as follows:
5.Gunn E, Kendall-Taylor J, Vandenburg B. Taking author instructions to the next level. Council of Science Editors webinar. September 10, 2015. Accessed March 15, 2016. http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/resource-library/past-presentationswebinars/past-webinars/2015-webinar-3-taking-author-instructions-to-the-next-level/
3.13.9 Meeting Presentations and Other Unpublished Material.
References to unpublished material may include articles or abstracts that have been presented at a society meeting and published as part of the meeting proceedings or materials.
22.214.171.124 Items Presented at a Meeting.
These oral or poster presentations take the following form:
1.Pasternak B. Carvedilol vs metoprolol succinate and risk of mortality in patients with heart failure: national cohort study. Paper presented at: European Society of Cardiology Congress; August 31, 2014; Barcelona, Spain.
2.Minocchieri S, Berry CA, Pillow J. Nebulized surfactant for treatment of respiratory distress in the first hours of life: the CureNeb study. Abstract presented at: Annual Meeting of the Pediatric Academic Society; May 6, 2013; Washington, DC. Session 3500.
3.Nevidomskyte D, Meissner MH, Tran N, Murray S, Farrokhi E. Influence of gender on abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in the community. Poster presented at: Vascular Annual Meeting; June 5-7, 2014; Boston, MA.
Once these presentations are published, they take the form of reference to a book, journal, or other medium in which they are ultimately published, as in example 5 (see 3.12.1, References to Books, Complete Data, and 3.11.1, References to Journal Articles, Complete Data):
4.Huang G-M, Huang K-Y, Lee T-Y, Tzu-Ya Weng J. An interpretable rule-based diagnostic classification of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetes patients. BMC Bioinformatics. 2015;16(suppl 1):S5. Selected articles from the Thirteenth Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Conference (APBC 2015). doi:10.1186/1471-2105-16-S1-S5
In example 4, the entire journal supplement is dedicated to publishing articles from a meeting.
5.Resnick ML. The effect of affect: decision making in the emotional context of health care. In: Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care: Bridging the Gap. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society; 2012:39-44.
126.96.36.199 Material Accepted for Publication but Not Yet Published.
Some journals may include material that has been accepted for publication but not published. However, the JAMA Network journals and other journals ordinarily will not include these materials as formal references, particularly forthcoming journal articles that have not yet been published. Reasons not to include forthcoming journal articles in a reference list include (1) citing a forthcoming article might break the journal’s embargo policy, (2) publication may not occur as planned, and (3) these references are not retrievable. (The term forthcoming is preferred to in press because in press is an outdated term.5,8)
The following examples are provided for books, but this is not recommended for journal articles:
6.Lewis M. The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds. WW Norton & Co. Forthcoming 2016.
7.Christiansen SL, Iverson C, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 11th ed. Oxford University Press. Forthcoming 2019.
Note: Publications that permit citation of forthcoming journal articles may require authors to verify acceptance for publication (authors sometimes confuse submitted with accepted).5,8
188.8.131.52 Material Submitted for Publication but Not Yet Accepted.
In the list of references, do not include material that has been submitted for publication but has not yet been accepted. This material, with its date, should be noted in the text as “unpublished data,” as follows:
These findings have recently been corroborated (H. E. Marman, MD, unpublished data, January 2015).
Similar findings have been noted by Roberts6 and H. E. Marman, MD (unpublished data, 2015).
However, it is not best practice to cite unpublished data as a source, and these may be better noted as personal communications.
3.13.10 Personal Communications.
Personal communications should not be included in the list of references. Personal communications (cited in text) should be used judiciously, and documentation should be provided to support personal communication. Oral communication should be supported in writing. The following forms may be used in the text:
According to a letter from H. E. Marman, MD, in August 2015 …
Similar findings have been noted by Roberts6 and by H. E. Marman, MD (email, August 15, 2015).
According to the manufacturer (H. R. Smith, PhD, Pharma International, written communication, May 1, 2015), the drug became available in Japan in January 2014.
The author should provide the date of the communication and indicate how it was documented (eg, letter, email, document). The person’s highest academic degree(s) should also be given. If the affiliation of the person would better establish the relevance and authority of the citation, it should be included (see the example above, where H. R. Smith is identified as working for the drug’s manufacturer; see also 3.15.9, Electronic References, Email and Electronic Mailing List [LISTSERV] Messages).
Some journals, including the JAMA Network journals, require that the author obtain written permission from the person whose unpublished data or personal communication is thus cited3,8 (see 5.2.9, Acknowledgments, Permission to Name Individuals).
3.13.11 Classical References.
References to classical works may deviate from the usual forms in some details. In many instances, the facts of publication are irrelevant and may be omitted. Date of publication should be given when available and pertinent.
1.Shakespeare W. A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Act 2, scene 3, line 24.
2.Donne J. Second Anniversary. Verse 243.
For classical references, The Chicago Manual of Style 12 may be used as a guide.
3.Aristotle. Metaphysics. 3. 2.966b 5—8.
In biblical references, do not abbreviate the names of books. The version may be included parenthetically if the information is provided (see example 4). References to the Bible are usually included in the text.
The story begins in Genesis 3:1.
Paul admonished against succumbing to temptation (I Corinthians 10:6-13).
Occasionally they may appear as listed references at the end of the article.
4.I Corinthians 10:6-13 (RSV).